Document Detail

Lifelong bilingualism maintains neural efficiency for cognitive control in aging.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23303919     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Recent behavioral data have shown that lifelong bilingualism can maintain youthful cognitive control abilities in aging. Here, we provide the first direct evidence of a neural basis for the bilingual cognitive control boost in aging. Two experiments were conducted, using a perceptual task-switching paradigm, including a total of 110 participants. In Experiment 1, older adult bilinguals showed better perceptual switching performance than their monolingual peers. In Experiment 2, younger and older adult monolinguals and bilinguals completed the same perceptual task-switching experiment while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. Typical age-related performance reductions and fMRI activation increases were observed. However, like younger adults, bilingual older adults outperformed their monolingual peers while displaying decreased activation in left lateral frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Critically, this attenuation of age-related over-recruitment associated with bilingualism was directly correlated with better task-switching performance. In addition, the lower blood oxygenation level-dependent response in frontal regions accounted for 82% of the variance in the bilingual task-switching reaction time advantage. These results suggest that lifelong bilingualism offsets age-related declines in the neural efficiency for cognitive control processes.
Brian T Gold; Chobok Kim; Nathan F Johnson; Richard J Kryscio; Charles D Smith
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience     Volume:  33     ISSN:  1529-2401     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Neurosci.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-01-10     Completed Date:  2013-03-04     Revised Date:  2013-07-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8102140     Medline TA:  J Neurosci     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  387-96     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Aging / psychology*
Cerebral Cortex / anatomy & histology,  physiology
Cognition / physiology*
Educational Status
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Intelligence Tests
Language Tests
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Memory / physiology
Middle Aged
Psychomotor Performance / physiology
Reaction Time / physiology
Wechsler Scales
Grant Support

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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