Document Detail

Lichen sclerosus: review of the literature and current recommendations for management.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17936829     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
PURPOSE: We reviewed the literature regarding the clinical presentation, etiology, natural history, and medical and surgical management of lichen sclerosus in men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search of the literature in PubMed, MEDLINE and other electronic databases between 1950 and 2006 using the key words lichen sclerosis, balanitis xerotica obliterans and urethral stricture. Our search resulted in 1,268 sources containing the words lichen sclerosus or balanitis xerotica obliterans. We reviewed 68 articles in the peer reviewed journals and 2 chapters on this subject. RESULTS: Lichen sclerosus is a chronic, lymphocyte mediated skin disease that was first described in 1887. It shows a predilection for the anogenital area in men and women. Much has been discovered regarding the epidemiology, natural history and histological features of this disease process during the last century, including the discovery of a strong association between lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma. The techniques of medical and surgical management of this disorder are still being elucidated. Biopsy of the initial lesion for definitive diagnosis and long-term followup of affected patients are well established, critical elements in the management of lichen sclerosus. CONCLUSIONS: Lichen sclerosus is a chronic, debilitating condition that may progress to cause significant voiding complications. Biopsy is recommended in all patients suspected of having lichen sclerosus to rule out squamous cell carcinoma. Further research is needed to improve the prevention, understanding and treatment of this challenging condition.
Jennifer M Pugliese; Allen F Morey; Andrew C Peterson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review     Date:  2007-10-15
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of urology     Volume:  178     ISSN:  1527-3792     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Urol.     Publication Date:  2007 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-11-12     Completed Date:  2008-01-04     Revised Date:  2009-03-27    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376374     Medline TA:  J Urol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2268-76     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Surgery, Urology Service, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington 98431, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Balanitis / epidemiology,  pathology,  therapy
Cryotherapy / methods
Laser Therapy / methods
Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / epidemiology,  pathology*,  therapy
Precancerous Conditions / pathology*
Risk Assessment
Sex Distribution
Treatment Outcome
Urethral Stricture / epidemiology,  pathology,  therapy*
Urologic Surgical Procedures / methods
Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / epidemiology,  pathology,  therapy*
Comment In:
J Urol. 2009 Mar;181(3):1502-3   [PMID:  19157438 ]

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