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Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23044431     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Leonardo da Vinci's detailed drawings are justly celebrated; however, less well known are his accounts of the structures and functions of the organs. In this paper, we focus on his illustrations of the heart, his conjectures about heart and blood vessel function, his experiments on model systems to test those conjectures, and his unprecedented conclusions about the way in which the cardiovascular system operates. In particular, da Vinci seems to have been the first to recognize that the heart is a muscle and that systole is the active phase of the pump. He also seems to have understood the functions of the auricles and pulmonary veins, identified the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the pulse, and explained the hemodynamic mechanism of valve opening and closure. He also described anatomical variations and changes in structure and function that occurred with age. We outline da Vinci's varied career and suggest ways in which his personality, experience, skills and intellectual heritage contributed to these advances in understanding. We also consider his influence on later studies in anatomy and physiology.
Authors:
Mohammadali M Shoja; Paul S Agutter; Marios Loukas; Brion Benninger; Ghaffar Shokouhi; Husain Namdar; Kamyar Ghabili; Majid Khalili; R Shane Tubbs
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-5
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of cardiology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1874-1754     ISO Abbreviation:  Int. J. Cardiol.     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-9     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8200291     Medline TA:  Int J Cardiol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Section of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital, Birmingham, AL, USA; Division of Neurological Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Electronic address: amohadjel@yahoo.com.
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