Document Detail

Left ventricle changes early after breath-holding in deep water in elite apnea divers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20369649     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
PURPOSE: To study by ultrasounds cardiac morphology and function early after breath-hold diving in deep water in elite athletes. METHODS: Fifteen healthy male divers (age 28 +/- 3 years) were studied using Doppler-echocardiography, immediately before (basal condition, BC) and two minutes after breath-hold diving (40 meters, acute post-apnea condition, APAC). Each subject performed a series of three consecutive breath-hold dives (20-30 and 40 m depth). RESULTS: End-diastolic left ventricular (LV) diameter (EDD) and end-diastolic LV volume (EDV) increased significantly (p < 0.01). Stroke volume (SV), cardiac index (CI), septal and posterior systolic wall-thickening (SWT) also significantly increased after diving (p < 0.01). No wall motion abnormalities were detected, and wall motion score index was unchanged between BC and APAC. Doppler mitral E wave increased significantly (p < 0.01), whereas the A wave was unchanged. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) decreased significantly after diving (p < 0.05). In the factor analysis, filtering out the absolute values smaller than 0.7 in the loading matrix, it resulted that factor I consists of EDV, posterior SWT, SV and CI, factor II of diastolic blood pressure, waves A and E and factor III of heart rate and SVR. CONCLUSIONS: Systo-diastolic functions were improved in the early period after deep breath-hold diving due to favorable changes in loading conditions relative to pre-diving, namely the recruitment of left ventricular preload reserve and the reduction in afterload.
Alessandro Pingitore; Angelo Gemignani; Danilo Menicucci; Mirko Passera; Francesca Frassi; Claudio Marabotti; Andrea Piarulli; Antonio Benassi; Antonio L'Abbate; Remo Bedini
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Undersea & hyperbaric medicine : journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc     Volume:  37     ISSN:  1066-2936     ISO Abbreviation:  Undersea Hyperb Med     Publication Date:    2010 Jan-Feb
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-04-07     Completed Date:  2010-04-15     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9312954     Medline TA:  Undersea Hyperb Med     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  13-21     Citation Subset:  IM; S    
Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, Italy.
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MeSH Terms
Diving / physiology*
Echocardiography, Doppler
Heart Ventricles / ultrasonography*
Likelihood Functions
Mitral Valve / physiology,  ultrasonography
Statistics, Nonparametric
Stroke Volume / physiology
Vascular Resistance / physiology
Ventricular Function, Left / physiology*

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