Document Detail

Lead toxicity update. A brief review.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16192916     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Lead is a metal which has been associated with human activities for the last 6000 years. In ancient civilizations, uses of lead included the manufacture of kitchen utensils, trays, and other decorative articles. However, lead is also toxic to humans, with the most deleterious effects on the hemopoietic, nervous, reproductive systems and the urinary tract. The main sources of lead exposure are paints, water, food, dust, soil, kitchen utensils, and leaded gasoline. The majority of cases of lead poisoning are due to oral ingestion and absorption through the gut. Lead poisoning in adults occurs more frequently during exposure in the workplace and primarily involves the central nervous system. Symptoms of hemopoietic system involvement include microcytic, hypochromic anemia with basophilic stippling of the erythrocytes. Hyperactivity, anorexia, decreased play activity, low intelligence quotient, and poor school performance have been observed in children with high lead levels. Lead crosses the placenta during pregnancy and has been associated with intrauterine death, prematurity, and low birth weight. In 1991, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA redefined elevated blood lead levels as those > or = 10 microg/dl and recommended a new set of guidelines for the treatment of lead levels > or =15 microg/dl.
Nikolas C Papanikolaou; Eleftheria G Hatzidaki; Stamatis Belivanis; George N Tzanakakis; Aristidis M Tsatsakis
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review     Date:  2005-09-26
Journal Detail:
Title:  Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research     Volume:  11     ISSN:  1234-1010     ISO Abbreviation:  Med. Sci. Monit.     Publication Date:  2005 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-09-29     Completed Date:  2006-01-23     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9609063     Medline TA:  Med Sci Monit     Country:  Poland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  RA329-36     Citation Subset:  IM    
Venizelion General Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
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MeSH Terms
Chelating Agents / therapeutic use
Lead / pharmacokinetics,  toxicity*
Lead Poisoning / drug therapy,  epidemiology,  physiopathology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Chelating Agents; 7439-92-1/Lead

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