Document Detail

Lead levels in human milk and children's health risk: a systematic review.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21038758     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Lead (Pb), a naturally-occurring element and industrially-produced metal, is highly toxic to children, causing intellectual and behavioral deficits, hyperactivity, fine motor function deficits, decreased intelligence quotient, alteration of hand-eye coordination, and problems in reaction time. Children's exposure to Pb occurs mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, water and soil. Few discussions have been held on the magnitude and potential risk associated with exposure from the consumption of breast milk. Hence, this research was designed to systematically review the scientific literature on published epidemiologic studies, with an emphasis on the study designs and analytical procedures used for Pb assessment in breast milk. From a total of 112 selected articles published since the 1980s, 11 met the inclusion criteria. A review of the data indicated that Pb levels varied from 0.15 to 6.1 microg L(-1) in mature milk samples, from 0.48 to 14.6 microg L(-1) in colostrum samples, and were non-detectable in some samples. The milk/blood ratio, which estimates the mean efficiency transfer of lead from blood to milk, varied between 0.01 and 0.48. The heterogeneity of methods revealed by our assessment of published studies underscores the need for harmonization of study designs and sample collection and analysis protocols to reflect specific exposure scenarios. Human milk seems to be one of the relevant biological matrices for use as a biomarker for assessing children's health risk to Pb poisoning.
Gina Ayumi Kobayashi Koyashiki; Monica Maria Bastos Paoliello; Paul B Tchounwou
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Reviews on environmental health     Volume:  25     ISSN:  0048-7554     ISO Abbreviation:  Rev Environ Health     Publication Date:    2010 Jul-Sep
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-11-02     Completed Date:  2010-12-10     Revised Date:  2013-07-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0425754     Medline TA:  Rev Environ Health     Country:  Israel    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  243-53     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Collective Health, Health Science Center, State University of Londrina, Parana, Brazil.
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MeSH Terms
Biological Markers / metabolism
Breast Feeding / adverse effects*
Colostrum / chemistry,  metabolism
Environmental Exposure / adverse effects,  analysis*,  prevention & control
Lead / adverse effects,  analysis*
Lead Poisoning / epidemiology,  etiology*,  prevention & control
Milk, Human / chemistry*,  metabolism
Grant Support
G12 RR013459-13/RR/NCRR NIH HHS
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biological Markers; 7439-92-1/Lead

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