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Lead Pipe Scale Analysis Using Broad-Beam Argon Ion Milling to Elucidate Drinking Water Corrosion.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21281551     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Herein, we characterized lead pipe scale removed from a drinking water distribution system using argon ion beam etching and a variety of solids analysis approaches. Specifically, pipe scale cross sections and solids were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The pipe scale consisted of at least five layers that contained Pb(II) and Pb(IV) minerals, and magnesium, aluminum, manganese, iron, and silicon solids. The outer layer was enriched with crystalline amorphous manganese and iron, giving it a dark orange to red color. The middle layers consisted of hydrocerussite and plattnerite, and the bottom layer consisted primarily of litharge. Over the litharge layer, hydrocerussite crystals were grown vertically away from the pipe wall, which included formations of plattnerite. Significant amounts of trace contaminant vanadium, likely in the form of vanadinite, and copper accumulated in the scale as well.
Mallikarjuna N Nadagouda; Colin White; Darren Lytle
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-2-1
Journal Detail:
Title:  Microscopy and microanalysis : the official journal of Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society, Microscopical Society of Canada     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1435-8115     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-2-1     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9712707     Medline TA:  Microsc Microanal     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  1-8     Citation Subset:  -    
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NRMRL, WSWRD, 26 W. MLK Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA.
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