|Lansoprazole Novel Effector Sites Revealed by Autoradiography: Relation to Helicobacter pylori, Colon, Esophagus and Others.|
|Jump to Full Text|
|PMID: 18299709 Owner: NLM Status: PubMed-not-MEDLINE|
|Lansoprazole uptake sites by two kinds of autoradiographic procedures were compared with recent literature. The uptake sites have been seen in the Helicobacter pylori, colonic epithelial cells, inflammatory cells, peripheral autonomic nerves and enterochromaffinlike cells as well as gastric parietal cells. Each uptake sites corresponded to the reported localization of P-type ATPase or acidic compartment.|
|Masahiko Nakamura; Hidenori Matsui; Hiroshi Serizawa; Kanji Tsuchimoto|
Related Documents :
|10834979 - Role of vaca and caga in helicobacter pylori inhibition of mucin synthesis in gastric m...
22683639 - Identification of compounds that augment the lectin-sensitivity of chinese hamster ovar...
7729879 - Stimulation of interleukin-8 production in epithelial cell lines by helicobacter pylori.
17015179 - Rate of oxidant stress regulates balance between rat gastric mucosa proliferation and a...
328539 - Reaction of human smooth muscle autoantibody with gastric parietal cells: a pitfall in ...
1660859 - Combined non-radioactive detection of peptide hormones and their mrna's in endocrine ce...
12445749 - Assessment of differentiation in adenocarcinoma cells from pleural effusion by peripher...
18377419 - In vitro differentiation of runx3-/- p53-/- gastric epithelial cells into intestinal ty...
22076119 - Small interfering rna targeting krüppel-like factor 8 inhibits u251 glioblastoma cell ...
|Type: Journal Article|
|Title: Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition Volume: 41 ISSN: 0912-0009 ISO Abbreviation: J Clin Biochem Nutr Publication Date: 2007 Nov|
|Created Date: 2008-02-26 Completed Date: 2011-07-14 Revised Date: 2013-05-23|
Medline Journal Info:
|Nlm Unique ID: 8700907 Medline TA: J Clin Biochem Nutr Country: Japan|
|Languages: eng Pagination: 154-9 Citation Subset: -|
|School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kitasato University, 5-9-1 Shirokane, Mitato-ku, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan.|
|APA/MLA Format Download EndNote Download BibTex|
Journal ID (nlm-ta): J Clin Biochem Nutr
Journal ID (publisher-id): JCBN
Publisher: the Society for Free Radical Research Japan, Kyoto, Japan
Copyright © 2007 JCBN
open-access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Received Day: 27 Month: 8 Year: 2007
Accepted Day: 28 Month: 8 Year: 2007
Print publication date: Month: 11 Year: 2007
Electronic publication date: Day: 30 Month: 10 Year: 2007
Volume: 41 Issue: 3
First Page: 154 Last Page: 159
PubMed Id: 18299709
Publisher Id: jcbn2007052
|Lansoprazole Novel Effector Sites Revealed by Autoradiography: Relation to Helicobacter pylori, Colon, Esophagus and Others|
|School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kitasato University, 5-9-1 Shirokane, Mitato-ku, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan
|Correspondence: *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel/Fax: +81-3-3446-9036 E-mail: email@example.com
In almost all biological system, ATP is used as an energy source. As most cells are impermeable to ATP, it must be recycled in each cell. As a consequence, every cell catalyses an ATP synthesis/ATP hydrolysis cycle. A diverse ATPases runs this system; at least three classes are ion motive ATPases; phosphorylated (P), vacuolated (V) and F0F1 (F) types .
The gastric H, K-ATPase is a member of the P-type, ion-motive ATPase gene family. In eukaryotes, other members of the family are the Na, K-ATPases, the Ca ATPases of sarcoplasmic reticulum, endosome and plasma membrane, and the fungal H-ATPases [2, 3].
As to the H, K-ATPase, it is clear that the expression of the genes encoding the two subunits of the gastric H, K-ATPase is not restricted to the stomach. Furthermore, a number of closely related H, K-ATPase isoforms have been discovered. These isoforms are also expressed in several organs including distal colon and distal tubule of kidney .
Substituted benzimidazoles, omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole have been one of the World’s top selling drugs because of its effectiveness to gastroduodenal ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux diseases, specificity of the effector sites and safety. Its specificity is based on the characteristics that this agent is a prodrug of sulfenamide and accumulates in the acidic compartment and converted to the rather impermeable sulfenamide and binds covalently to cysteine accessible from the extracytoplasmic face of the enzyme . This means that acidic environment with cysteine residues in the luminal surface could be novel targets of this agents and their derivatives.
We have performed the autoradiography using tritiated lansoprazole for the last twelve years. This paper was attempted to review recent publications related to ATPases and substituted benzimidazoles and clarify the significance of our autoradiographic observation.
To clarify the localization of the water-soluble compounds, two kinds of autoradiographic procedures are available, i.e., autoradiography of soluble compounds and in vitro autoradiography using unfixed cryostat sections.
Nagata et al.,  started the autoradiography of water soluble or diffusible compounds in 1969. This method is the combination of administration of radiolabelled compounds, freeze-drying of the tissue, fixation with osmium vapor, direct Epon embedding under low temperature, tissue sectioning with ethylene glycol instead of water and application of autoradiographic emulsion film by wire-loop method. After 30 to 60-day exposure, the specimens were developed and fixed. Using this method, we could identify the uptake or binding sites of the radiolabelled chemicals by light and electron microscopy [7, 8].
The second method is composed of cryostat sectioning of the unfixed tissues, administration of the radiolabelled compounds and application of autoradiographic emulsion films by the wire-loop method. In this method, the specimens can be observed by light microscopy and double staining with immunohistochemical method is available .
In this context, omeprazole and lansoprazole are very useful tools to clarify their uptake sites, because they are accumulated in the acidic compartment and binds covalently to the cysteine residues as mentioned above and become insoluble to water. Thus, the ordinary autoradiographic method can be applied which is used in 3H-thymidine autoradiography, because administered 3H-thymidine also becomes insoluble to water after incorporated to the DNA.
The specificity of the uptake sites of omeprazole and lansoprazole could be estimated by the prior administration of glutathione. This procedure is able to inhibit the accumulation of the compounds .
In the healthy fundic mucosa, most of the uptake sites are the parietal cells (Fig. 1). The relatively young parietal cells localized in the neck portion of the funded glands show the strongest accumulation, while in the body and base of the funded glands the accumulation was not so strong. In addition, some of the uptake sites are recognized in the enterochromaffinlike cell and other neuroendocrine cells. These uptake sites could represent the same kind of P-type ATPases as reported to exist in the chromaffin cells and cholinergic nerves .
The uptake sites of PPIs in the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected gastric mucosa can be divided into H. pylori itself and background mucosal tissues.
As to the activity of substituted benzimdazoles against H. pylori, Megraud et al.  reported the bacteriostatic effect of lansoprazole and omeprazole but not against C. jejuni or E. coli. The MICs was lower for lansoprazole than for omeprazole (16 vs 64 mg/l). Following this paper, members of the Takeda pharmaceutical have reported many interesting papers. At first they showed the inhibition of H. pylori urease activity by lansoprazole [13, 14], while in the later papers they found the activity of lansoprazole was fourfold more potent than that of omeprazole and bismuth subsalicylate, with MICs ranging from 1.56 to 25 micrograms/ml and concluded that anti-H. pylori effect is not by sulfenamide, because the antibacterial activity of omeprazole and lansoprazole was not affected by glutathione or dithiothreitol, which completely abolished the inhibitory activity of lansoprazole against H. pylori urease [15, 16].
As to the effect of other substituted benzimidazoles, omeprazole and rabeprazole to H. pylori, both of the urease dependent and independent mechanisms have been postulated [17–19]. As to this non-sulfenamide-mediated anti-H. pylori effect of proton pump inhibitors, the sulfides of benzimidazoles was reported to show the selective and reversible antibacterial effect without any covalent protein binding .
As to the urease activity of H. pylori, not only the surface bound urease but UreI existing between two layers of bacterial membrane has also reported to play more significant role in the survival of H. pylori, and this enzyme system was suggested to be a new target of drug therapy .
As to the pharmacological foci of H. pylori other than urease, the existence of P-type ATPases has been suggested [22–24]. One of these enzymes was shown to be heavy metal cation, cupper and nickel, transporting ATPase and belongs to a family of P-type ATPases containing eight transmembrane segments. This enzyme was reported to have relation to bacterial resistance to heavy metals  and exists also in Streptomyces species . More recently, this enzyme has shown to be related to bacterial adaptation to the environment and type IV-related secretory mechanism of Cag A [27–30].
As to the formation of the autoimmune gastritis, the molecular mimicry of H. pylori and the parietal cells have been pointed out. Recently, this is found to be related to the H, K-ATPase in the parietal cells [31, 32].
Our autoradiographic study has shown the existence of uptake sites of 3H-lansprazole near the plasma membrane of the H. pylori (Fig. 2) . This localization could be related one of these enzymes described above.
There are sites other than fundic mucosa in the body to be able to reabsorb K and secrete H, such as the distal colon and the distal tubule of the kidney.
Kaunitz et al.  reported the existence of two kinds of colonic ATPases by the pharmacological method. One was similar to H, K-ATPase, while the colonic transporter in the intact organ was ouabain inhibitable, in contrast to the H, K-ATPase . The sequence of the colonic APTase is 75% homologous to the H, K-ATPase in the parietal cell . A K-ATPase has been shown to be present in a colon cancer cell line and be related to drug resistance [39, 40]. It would appear that there is yet another family of P-type ATPases, those with sequences intermediate between the Na, K- and H, K-ATPases and suggested to have different inhibition characteristics . The cloned colonic ATPase does not have the extracytoplasmic cisterns reacting with omeprazole, and the loop between M1 and M2 is not identical with the gastric H, K-ATPases.
Through our autoradiographic studies using 3H-lansoprazole, we have obtained two diverse uptake sites in the colonic mucosa. By the in vivo administration followed by autoradiography of soluble compounds, the uptake sites were mostly found in the upper colonic epithelial cells in the control rats (Fig. 3) , while in the in vitro autoradiography using unfixed cryostat sections, most of the uptake sites were found in the inflammatory cells including polymorphonuclear leucocytes and macrophages and in the colonic epithelial cells in the control and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated rats . Because of the different method of fixation, this may be due to the stability of the enzyme in the inflammatory cells. The clinical relevance to this observation is not clear, but some reports showed the effectiveness of omeprazole to the ulcerative colitis  and DSS-induced colitis .
From the above observation, the relation of lansoprazole to the inflammatory cells has been suggested, while few reports have shown the existence of P-type ATPase in the inflammatory cells and V-type ATPase was proved to be existing through the effect of bafilomycin . The pH of lysosome is generally thought to be about 5 and can be a candidate for the accumulation of substituted benzimidazole, especially lansoprazole, because it has two pKas and one is slightly shifted to the neutral pH, compared with omeprazole .
The benzimdazoles are found to be bacteriocidal to oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia in acidic environmentv. In these bacteria, identified targets for benzimidazole inhibition included the phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase system, the glycolytic enzymes aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactic dehydrogenase, and enzymes such as urease and arginine deaminase.
The yeast plasma membrane proton pumping ATPase (H-ATPase) is a potential molecular target for antifungal drug therapy by examining the inhibitory effects of the sulfhydryl-reactive reagent omeprazole on cell growth, glucose-induced medium acidification and H-ATPase activity . Omeprazole inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans in a pH dependent manner.
We have observed the uptake sites of lansoprazole in the esophagus and found mostly in the peripheral autonomic nervous system. By the immunohistochemical observation, most of them coincided with CGRP-immunoreactive nerves.
Pharmacological studies have demonstrated the effect of lansoprazole on the increased bicarbonate secretion  and autonomic nerve-mediated regulation was suggested. As to the autonomic nerves, existence of P-type ATPase has been reported in the cholinergic and adrenergic nerves [11, 48] and this is a functional protein system containing a critical sulfhydryl group.
In rat kidney, sequence information has shown the presence of gene products identical with the gastric H, K-ATPase [49, 50]. There has also been biochemical evidence described showing the presence of a K-ATPase in the kidney that is different from the Na, K-ATPase. In placenta, non-gastric H, K-ATPase is present in the microvillous plasma membrane of the transporting epithelia of the human placenta . In addition, fibroblasts  and endothelial cells  could be possible candidates.
The effectiveness of substituted benzimidazoles seems to be clinically obvious, but we still have a long way to go to draw the whole map of this interesting agent especially its relation to various kinds of ATPases.
|1.||McCarty R.E.. A plant biochemist’s view of H+-ATPases and ATP synthasesJ. Exp. Biol. 172:431–441.1992; [pmid: 9874753]|
|2.||Yamashiro D.J.,Fluss S.R.,Maxfield F.R.. Acidification of endocytic vesicles by an ATP-dependent proton pumpJ. Cell Biol. 97:929–934.1983; [pmid: 6224803]|
|3.||Maeda M.. Genes for gastric proton pump and their transcriptional regulationYakugaku Zasshi 116:91–105.1996; [pmid: 8717277]|
|4.||van Driel I.R.,Callaghan J.M.. Proton and potassium transport by H+/K(+)-ATPasesClin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 22:952–960.1995; [pmid: 8846517]|
|5.||Sachs G.. Proton pump inhibitors and acid-related diseasesPharmacotherapy 17:22–37.1997; [pmid: 9017763]|
|6.||Nagata T.,Nawa T.,Yokota S.. A new technique for electron microscopic dry-mounting radioautography of soluble compoundsHistochemie 18:211–249.1969;|
|7.||Nakamura M.,Oda M.,Yonei Y.,Tsukada N.,Komatsu H.,Kaneko K.,Tsuchiya M.. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rat gastric mucosa a radioautographic study using a potent muscarinic antagonist, 3H-pirenzepineHistochemistry 83:479–487.1985; [pmid: 3841347]|
|8.||Nakamura M.,Oda M.,Akiba Y.,Inoue J.,Ito T.,Tsuchiya M.,Ishii H.. Autoradiographic demonstration of lansoprazole uptake sites in rat antrum and colonJ. Clin. Gastroenterol. 20 Suppl 2:S8–S13.1995; [pmid: 7594349]|
|9.||Nakamura M.,Asada M.,Atsuda K.,Matsui H.,Watanabe T.,Higuchi K.,Arakawa T.,Hibi N.,Tsuchimoto K.. Lansoprazole binding to the neutrophils in dextran sulfate sodium-induced rat colitisInflammopharmacology 13:303–315.2005; [pmid: 16259749]|
|10.||Helander H.F.,Ramsay C.H.,Regardh C.G.. Localization of omeprazole and metabolites in the mouseScand. J. Gastroenterol. 108 Suppl 1:95–104.1985;|
|11.||Parsons S.M.,Koenigsberger R.. Specific stimulated uptake of acetylcholine by Torpedo electric organ synaptic vesiclesProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77:6234–6238.1980; [pmid: 6934549]|
|12.||Megraud F.,Boyanova L.,Lamouliatte H.. Activity of lansoprazole against Helicobacter pyloriLancet 337:1486.1991; [pmid: 1675355]|
|13.||Iwahi T.,Satoh H.,Nakao M.,Iwasaki T.,Yamazaki T.,Kubo K.,Tamura T.,Imada A.. Lansoprazole, a novel benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor, and its related compounds have selective activity against Helicobacter pyloriAntimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:490–496.1991; [pmid: 2039199]|
|14.||Nagata K.,Satoh H.,Iwahi T.,Shimoyama T.,Tamura T.. Potent inhibitory action of the gastric proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole against urease activity of Helicobacter pylori: unique action selective for H. pylori cellsAntimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:769–774.1993; [pmid: 8494373]|
|15.||Nagata K.,Takagi E.,Tsuda M.,Nakazawa T.,Satoh H.,Nakao M.,Okamura H.,Tamura T.. Inhibitory action of lansoprazole and its analogs against Helicobacter pylori: inhibition of growth is not related to inhibition of ureaseAntimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:567–570.1995; [pmid: 7726537]|
|16.||Nakao M.,Tada M.,Tsuchimori K.,Uekata M.. Antibacterial properties of lansoprazole alone and in combination with antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pyloriEur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 14:391–399.1995; [pmid: 7556227]|
|17.||Kuhler T.C.,Fryklund J.,Bergman N.A.,Weilitz J.,Lee A.,Larsson H.. Structure-activity relationship of omeprazole and analogues as Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitorsJ. Med. Chem. 38:4906–4916.1995; [pmid: 8523404]|
|18.||McGowan C.C.,Cover T.L.,Blaser M.J.. The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole inhibits acid survival of Helicobacter pylori by a urease-independent mechanismGastroenterology 107:1573–1578.1994; [pmid: 7926527]|
|19.||Tsuchiya M.,Imamura L.,Park J.B.,Kobashi K.. Helicobacter pylori urease inhibition by rabeprazole, a proton pump inhibitorBiol. Pharm. Bull. 18:1053–1056.1995; [pmid: 8535394]|
|20.||Sjostrom J.E.,Kuhler T.,Larsson H.. Basis for the selective antibacterial activity in vitro of proton pump inhibitors against Helicobacter sppAntimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:1797–1801.1997; [pmid: 9257764]|
|21.||Scott D.R.,Marcus E.A.,Weeks D.L.,Sachs G.. Mechanisms of acid resistance due to the urease system of Helicobacter pyloriGastroenterology 123:187–195.2002; [pmid: 12105847]|
|22.||Mauch F.,Bode G.,Malfertheiner P.. Identification and characterization of an ATPase system of Helicobacter pylori and the effect of proton pump inhibitorsAm. J. Gastroenterol. 88:1801–1802.1993; [pmid: 8213737]|
|23.||Ge Z.,Hiratsuka K.,Taylor D.E.. Nucleotide sequence and mutational analysis indicate that two Helicobacter pylori genes encode a P-type ATPase and a cation-binding protein associated with copper transportMol. Microbiol. 15:97–106.1995; [pmid: 7752900]|
|24.||Melchers K.,Weitzenegger T.,Buhmann A.,Steinhilber W.,Sachs G.,Schafer K.P.. Cloning and membrane topology of a P type ATPase from Helicobacter pyloriJ. Biol.Chem. 271:446–457.1996; [pmid: 8550601]|
|25.||Bayle D.,Wangler S.,Weitzenegger T.,Steinhilber W.,Volz J.,Przybylski M.,Schafer K.P.,Sachs G.,Melchers K.. Properties of the P-type ATPases encoded by the copAP operons of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felisJ. Bacteriol. 180:317–329.1998; [pmid: 9440521]|
|26.||Amoroso M.J.,Schubert D.,Mitscherlich P.,Schumann P.,Kothe E.. Evidence for high affinity nickel transporter genes in heavy metal resistant Streptomyces specJ. Basic Microbiol. 40:295–301.2000; [pmid: 11199488]|
|27.||Melchers K.,Schuhmacher A.,Buhmann A.,Weitzenegger T.,Belin D.,Grau S.,Ehrmann M.. Membrane topology of CadA homologous P-type ATPase of Helicobacter pylori as determined by expression of phoA fusions in Escherichia coli and the positive inside ruleRes. Microbiol. 150:507–520.1999; [pmid: 10577484]|
|28.||Hilleringmann M.,Pansegrau W.,Doyle M.,Kaufman S.,MacKichan M.L.,Gianfaldoni C.,Ruggiero P.,Covacci A.. Inhibitors of Helicobacter pylori ATPase Cagalpha block CagA transport and cag virulenceMicrobiology 152:2919–2930.2006; [pmid: 17005973]|
|29.||Kavermann H.,Burns B.P.,Angermuller K.,Odenbreit S.,Fischer W.,Melchers K.,Haas R.. Identification and characterization of Helicobacter pylori genes essential for gastric colonizationJ. Exp. Med. 197:813–822.2003; [pmid: 12668646]|
|30.||Savvides S.N.,Yeo H.J.,Beck M.R.,Blaesing F.,Lurz R.,Lanka E.,Buhrdorf R.,Fischer W.,Haas R.,Waksman G.. VirB11 ATPases are dynamic hexameric assemblies: new insights into bacterial type IV secretionEmbo J. 22:1969–1980.2003; [pmid: 12727865]|
|31.||Amedei A.,Bergman M.P.,Appelmelk B.J.,Azzurri A.,Benagiano M.,Tamburini C.,van der Zee R.,Telford J.L.,Vandenbroucke-Grauls C.M.,D’Elios M.M.,Del Prete G.. Molecular mimicry between Helicobacter pylori antigens and H+, K+: adenosine triphosphatase in human gastric autoimmunityJ. Exp. Med. 198:1147–1156.2003; [pmid: 14568977]|
|32.||D’Elios M.M.,Appelmelk B.J.,Amedei A.,Bergman M.P.,Del Prete G.. Gastric autoimmunity: the role of Helicobacter pylori and molecular mimicryTrends Mol. Med. 10:316–323.2004; [pmid: 15242679]|
|33.||Jenks P.J.,Foynes S.,Ward S.J.,Constantinidou C.,Penn C.W.,Wren B.W.. A flagellar-specific ATPase (FliI) is necessary for flagellar export in Helicobacter pyloriFEMS Microbiol. Lett. 152:205–211.1997; [pmid: 9231413]|
|34.||Genisset C.,Puhar A.,Calore F.,de Bernard M.,Dell’Antone P.,Montecucco C.. The concerted action of the Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin VacA and of the v-ATPase proton pump induces swelling of isolated endosomesCell Microbiol. 9:1481–1490.2007; [pmid: 17253977]|
|35.||Nakamura M.,Oda M.,Akiba Y.,Inoue J.,Ito T.,Fujiwara T.,Tsuchiya M.,Ishii H.. Uptake site of lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, in human fundic mucosa: possible relevance with fibroblast and Helicobacter pyloriCell Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) 41:125–130.1995; [pmid: 7773126]|
|36.||Kaunitz J.D.,Sachs G.. Identification of a vanadate-sensitive potassium-dependent proton pump from rabbit colonJ. Biol. Chem. 261:14005–14010.1986; [pmid: 3021724]|
|37.||Sweiry J.H.,Binder H.J.. Active potassium absorption in rat distal colonJ. Physiol. 423:155–170.1990; [pmid: 2143781]|
|38.||Cougnon M.,Planelles G.,Crowson M.S.,Shull G.E.,Rossier B.C.,Jaisser F.. The rat distal colon P-ATPase alpha subunit encodes a ouabain-sensitive H+, K+-ATPaseJ. Biol. Chem. 271:7277–7280.1996; [pmid: 8631741]|
|39.||Abrahamse S.L.,Bindels R.J.,van Os C.H.. The colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 contains an H+/K(+)-ATPase that contributes to intracellular pH regulationPflugers Arch. 421:591–597.1992; [pmid: 1331976]|
|40.||Owatari S.,Akune S.,Komatsu M.,Ikeda R.,Firth S.D.,Che X.F.,Yamamoto M.,Tsujikawa K.,Kitazono M.,Ishizawa T.,Takeuchi T.,Aikou T.,Mercer J.F.,Akiyama S.,Furukawa T.. Copper-transporting P-type ATPase, ATP7A, confers multidrug resistance and its expression is related to resistance to SN-38 in clinical colon cancerCancer Res. 67:4860–4868.2007; [pmid: 17510416]|
|41.||Takeguchi M.,Asano S.,Tabuchi Y.,Takeguchi N.. The presence of H+,K(+)-ATPase in the crypt of rabbit distal colon demonstrated with monoclonal antibodies against gastric H+,K(+)-ATPaseGastroenterology 99:1339–1346.1990; [pmid: 2170221]|
|42.||Heinzow U.,Schlegelberger T.. Omeprazole in ulcerative colitisLancet 343:477.1994; [pmid: 7905967]|
|43.||Bidani A.,Wang C.Z.,Saggi S.J.,Heming T.A.. Evidence for pH sensitivity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha release by alveolar macrophagesLung 176:111–121.1998; [pmid: 9500296]|
|44.||de Korwin J.D.,Ducrotte P.,Vallot T.. New-generation proton pump inhibitors: progress in the treatment of peptic acid diseases?Presse Med. 33:746–754.2004; [pmid: 15257232]|
|45.||Nguyen P.T.,Baldeck J.D.,Olsson J.,Marquis R.E.. Antimicrobial actions of benzimidazoles against oral streptococciOral Microbiol. Immunol. 20:93–100.2005; [pmid: 15720569]|
|46.||Monk B.C.,Mason A.B.,Abramochkin G.,Haber J.E.,Seto-Young D.,Perlin D.S.. The yeast plasma membrane proton pumping ATPase is a viable antifungal target. I. Effects of the cysteine-modifying reagent omeprazoleBiochim. Biophys. Acta 1239:81–90.1995; [pmid: 7548148]|
|47.||Inada I.,Satoh H.. Capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons are involved in bicarbonate secretion induced by lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, in ratsDig. Dis. Sci. 41:785–790.1996; [pmid: 8674400]|
|48.||Breer H.,Morris S.J.,Whittaker V.P.. Adenosine triphosphatase activity associated with purified cholinergic synaptic vesicles of Torpedo marmorataEur. J. Biochem. 80:313–318.1977; [pmid: 144598]|
|49.||Curran K.A.,Hebert M.J.,Cain B.D.,Wingo C.S.. Evidence for the presence of a K-dependent acidifying adenosine triphosphatase in the rabbit renal medullaKidney Int. 42:1093–1098.1992; [pmid: 1333550]|
|50.||Boumendil-Podevin E.F.,Podevin R.A.. Effects of ATP on Na+ transport and membrane potential in inside-out renal basolateral vesiclesBiochim. Biophys. Acta 728:39–49.1983; [pmid: 6830772]|
|51.||Johansson M.,Jansson T.,Pestov N.B.,Powell T.L.. Non-gastric H+/K+ ATPase is present in the microvillous membrane of the human placental syncytiotrophoblastPlacenta 25:505–511.2004; [pmid: 15135233]|
|52.||Creemers L.B.,Jansen I.D.,Hoeben K.A.,Beertsen W.,Everts V.. Involvement of V-ATPases in the digestion of soft connective tissue collagenBiochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 251:429–436.1998; [pmid: 9792791]|
|53.||Tulin E.E.,Onoda N.,Hasegawa M.,Nomura H.,Kitamura T.. Inhibition of human endothelial cell proliferation by ShIF, a vacuolar H(+)-ATPase-like proteinOncogene 21:844–848.2002; [pmid: 11850812]|
Keywords: lansoprazole, autoradiography, Helicobacter pylori, colon, inflammatory cell.
Previous Document: Exhaled breath marker in asthma patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Next Document: Prospective multi-center trial for the efficacy of ecabet sodium on the relief of dyspepsia in korea...