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Laminectomy, durotomy, and piotomy effects on spinal cord intramedullary pressure in severe cervical and thoracic kyphotic deformity: a cadaveric study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22077470     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Object Previous studies have shown that cervical and thoracic kyphotic deformity increases spinal cord intramedullary pressure (IMP). Using a cadaveric model, the authors investigated whether posterior decompression can adequately decrease elevated IMP in severe cervical and thoracic kyphotic deformities. Methods Using an established cadaveric model, a kyphotic deformity was created in 16 fresh human cadavers (8 cervical and 8 thoracic). A single-level rostral laminotomy and durotomy were performed to place intraparenchymal pressure monitors in the spinal cord at C-2, C4?5, and C-7 in the cervical study group and at T4?5, T7?8, and T11?12 in the thoracic study group. Intramedullary pressure was recorded at maximal kyphosis. Posterior laminar, dural, and pial decompressions were performed while IMP was monitored. In 2 additional cadavers (1 cervical and 1 thoracic), a kyphotic deformity was created and then corrected. Results The creation of the cervical and thoracic kyphotic deformities resulted in significant increases in IMP. The mean increase in cervical and thoracic IMP (change in IMP [?IMP]) for all monitored levels was 37.8 ? 7.9 and 46.4 ? 6.4 mm Hg, respectively. After laminectomies were performed, the mean cervical and thoracic IMP was reduced by 22.5% and 18.5%, respectively. After midsagittal durotomies were performed, the mean cervical and thoracic IMP was reduced by 62.8% and 69.9%, respectively. After midsagittal piotomies were performed, the mean cervical and thoracic IMP was reduced by 91.3% and 105.9%, respectively. In 2 cadavers in which a kyphotic deformity was created and then corrected, the ?IMP increased with the creation of the deformity and returned to zero at all levels when the deformity was corrected. Conclusions In this cadaveric study, laminar decompression reduced ?IMP by approximately 15%?25%, while correction of the kyphotic deformity returned ?IMP to zero. This study helps explain the pathophysiology of myelopathy in kyphotic deformity and the failure of laminectomy alone for cervical and thoracic kyphotic deformities with myelopathy. In addition, the study emphasizes the need for correction of deformity during operative treatment of kyphotic deformity, the need for maintaining adequate intraoperative blood pressure during operative treatment, and the higher risk of spinal cord injury associated with operative treatment of kyphotic deformity.
Authors:
John S Winestone; Chad W Farley; Bradford A Curt; Albert Chavanne; Neal Dollin; David B Pettigrew; Charles Kuntz
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-11-11
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of neurosurgery. Spine     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1547-5646     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-11-14     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101223545     Medline TA:  J Neurosurg Spine     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Departments of Neurosurgery and.
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