Document Detail

Lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and infant growth: an analysis of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Babies Study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20415756     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), the most stable metabolite of p,p'-DDT, are persistent organic pollutants and environmental endocrine disruptors. Infant exposure to these chemicals through breast feeding may influence children's growth, but this potential adverse effect could be complicated by the coexisting benefits of breast feeding. This study examined the associations between lactational exposure to these chemicals and infant growth in the first 12 months by using data from the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Babies Study in central North Carolina, United States, 2004-06. The study population was restricted to the infants who were breast fed for 6 months or longer. PCBs, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were measured in breast milk at 3 months postpartum. Lactational exposure up to 12 months of age was estimated as the product of chemical concentrations and the duration of breast feeding. The infant's weight and length were recorded from the medical record for each routine paediatric well-child visit in the first 12 months. Women-child pairs who breast fed for 6 months or longer and returned the growth card (n = 210) were included in the study. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess the associations between chemical concentrations in breast milk and longitudinal infant weight and length measurements in the first 6 months. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the relationships between lactational exposure to chemicals until 12 months of age and the z-scores of infant weight, length and weight-for-length at 12 months. Overall, no association was observed. Breast feeding for 6 months or longer, with lactational exposure to PCBs, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE at the low background level concentrations studied here, resulted in no measurable influence on infant growth in the first 12 months.
I-Jen Pan; Julie L Daniels; Amy H Herring; Walter J Rogan; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Barbara D Goldman; Andreas Sjödin
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology     Volume:  24     ISSN:  1365-3016     ISO Abbreviation:  Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol     Publication Date:  2010 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-04-26     Completed Date:  2010-08-04     Revised Date:  2014-09-22    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8709766     Medline TA:  Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  262-71     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Body Height / drug effects
Body Weight / drug effects
Breast Feeding
Child Development / drug effects*
Child, Preschool
DDT / analysis,  toxicity*
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene / analysis,  toxicity*
Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
Linear Models
Maternal Exposure*
Milk, Human / chemistry*
Multivariate Analysis
Polychlorinated Biphenyls / analysis,  toxicity*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
4M7FS82U08/Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene; CIW5S16655/DDT; DFC2HB4I0K/Polychlorinated Biphenyls

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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