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Knowledge of common problems of newborn among primi mothers admitted in a selected hospital for safe confinement.
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MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25374854     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Among the almost 3.9 million newborn deaths that occur worldwide, about 30% occur in India. Children are our future and utmost precious resources. After birth the health of the child depends upon the health care practice adopted by the family, especially by the mothers. Information about neonatal problems and newborn care practices will help in reducing mortality and morbidity during the neonatal period. This study was conducted to identify the knowledge of primi mothers with regard to the common problems of normal neonates.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out among the mothers of neonates in the Maternity Unit of a Medical College Hospital in Mangalore. A pretested structured knowledge questionnaire was used to collect information from 60 primi mothers, who were admitted for safe confinement for a one-month period.
RESULTS: The findings of the study show that the majority, that is, 27 (45%) of the primi mothers had a good knowledge of all the areas such as vomiting, regurgitation, diaper rash, umbilical cord infection, fever, constipation, and diarrhea. About 20 (33.3%) had very good knowledge and about 13 (21.67%) had an average level of knowledge on the common problems of newborns. Knowledge about vomiting was average among 34 (56.67%), poor in 21 (35%), and good in five (8.33%). Knowledge about diaper rash was average among 36 (60%), good among 21 (35%), and poor among three (5%). Knowledge on umbilical cord infection was average in 29 (48.33%), good in 27 (45%), and poor in 4 (6.67%). Knowledge on fever was good in 38 (63.33%), average in 19 (31.66%), and poor in three (5%). Knowledge on constipation and diarrhea were average in 38 (63.34%), good in 11 (18.33%), and poor in 11 (18.33%). No association was found between the knowledge of primi mothers and selected baseline variables, such as, age, education, religion, occupation, type of family or area of dwelling.
CONCLUSION: The study concludes that there is a need to provide adequate information to first-time mothers about common newborn problems and this will help mothers care for their newborns better.
K C Leena; Deepthi A Koshy; Denna Thankachen; Deepa Thomas; Deepa R Varghese; Delcy S Fernandes
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of family medicine and primary care     Volume:  3     ISSN:  2249-4863     ISO Abbreviation:  J Family Med Prim Care     Publication Date:  2014 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-11-06     Completed Date:  2014-11-06     Revised Date:  2014-11-08    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101610082     Medline TA:  J Family Med Prim Care     Country:  India    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  204-6     Citation Subset:  -    
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From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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Journal Information
Journal ID (nlm-ta): J Family Med Prim Care
Journal ID (iso-abbrev): J Family Med Prim Care
Journal ID (publisher-id): JFMPC
ISSN: 2249-4863
ISSN: 2278-7135
Publisher: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd, India
Article Information
Copyright: © Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Print publication date: Season: Jul-Sep Year: 2014
Volume: 3 Issue: 3
First Page: 204 Last Page: 206
PubMed Id: 25374854
ID: 4209672
Publisher Id: JFMPC-3-204
DOI: 10.4103/2249-4863.141609

Knowledge of Common Problems of Newborn Among Primi Mothers Admitted in a Selected Hospital for Safe Confinement
K. C. Leenaaff1
Deepthi A. Koshy1
Denna Thankachen1
Deepa Thomas1
Deepa R. Varghese1
Delcy S. Fernandes1
Department of Community Health Nursing, Father Muller College of Nursing, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
1Basic B.Sc. Nursing, Father Muller College of Nursing, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
Correspondence: Address for correspondence: Prof. Leena K.C., Father Muller College of Nursing, Kankanady, Mangalore – 575 002, Karnataka, India. E-mail:


Children are our future and utmost precious resources. The physical and mental well-being of an individual depends on the correct management of events in the perinatal period. After the birth of the child, its health depends upon the health care practice adopted by the family, especially by mothers. For all babies the interval between onset of illness and death can be in a matter of minutes or hours.It is, therefore, very important for us to recognize and plan for the care of a newborn.[1]

Although the global under-five mortality rate has declined over the past few decades, neonatal mortality still remains high. Globally four million deaths occur every year in the first month of life. Almost all (99%) neonatal deaths occur in the low-income and middle-income countries. In India alone, around one million babies die each year before they complete their first month of life, contributing to one-fourth of the global burden. The neonatal mortality rate in India was 32 per 1000 live births in the year 2010, a high rate that has not declined much in the last decade. The report, released recently at the National Conference on Child Survival and Development in New Delhi, claims that of the roughly 26 million children born in India each year, 1.2 million die during the first four weeks, that is, 30% of the 3.9 million global neonatal deaths.[2]

To reduce the neonatal mortality rate, home-based neonatal care should be actively initiated through the National Rural Health (NRHM) and integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness (IMNCI). An added capacity of Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) and accredited social health activists (ASHAs), for careful tailoring of behavior change according to the local context, will bring about positive change and significant improvements in newborn care at home and neonatal mortality [Tables 1 and 2].[3]

Care practices immediately after delivery play a major role in causing neonatal morbidities and mortalities. The essential newborn care practices outlined to decrease neonatal morbidity and mortality include clean cord care, thermal care, and initiating breast feeding immediately after birth. The purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge of primi mothers with regard to neonatal ailments, their prevention, and management.

Materials and Methods

This descriptive study was carried out among mothers of neonates in the Maternity Unit of a Medical College Hospital in Mangalore. A pretested structured knowledge questionnaire was used to collect information from 60 primi mothers, who were admitted for safe confinement, for a one-month period. Permission was obtained from the concerned authorities of the hospital and ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee and written consent was obtained from the participants.


Sample characteristics: The majority, 43 (71.67%), were in the age group of 21-25 years, 10 (16.6%) were in the 26-30-year-old group, and seven (11.67%) were in the age group of 16-20 years. The highest, 20 (33.3%) primi mothers, had completed high school, 19 (31.67%) secondary education, and nine (15%) primary level education. The majority, 36 (60%), were Muslims, 20 (33.33%) Hindus, and four (6.67%) Christians. The highest, 35 (58.33%), were from a joint family, 16 (31.6%) from a nuclear family, and six (10%) from an extended family. The majority, 36 (56.67%) of the primi mothers, were from rural areas. The majority, 46 (76.67%) primi mothers, were unemployed.

Association between knowledge of primi mothers on common neonatal problems with selected baseline variables: Chi square values computed between knowledge of primi mothers and selected baseline variables, average (x2 = 0.217), education (x2 = 0.006), occupation (x2 = 0.184), religion (x2 = 0.360), Type of family (x2 = 0.477), and area of dwelling (x2 = 0.188), are less than 3.18. Therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted and research hypothesis is rejected.


In the present study the knowledge level on constipation and diarrhea shows that 38 (63.34%) had an average level of knowledge, about 11 (18.33%) had a good level of knowledge, and 11 (18.33%) had a poor level of knowledge. A descriptive study was conducted to assess the knowledge attitude and practice of neonatal care among postnatal mothers in a tertiary care hospital, South India among 100 postnatal mothers. Knowledge of mothers was inadequate in areas of umbilical cord care (35%), thermal care (76%) and vaccine preventable diseases. Nineteen percentage of them still practice oil instillation into nostrils of newborns and 61% of them administer gripe water to their babies.[4] Another study to assess the risk factors for umbilical cord infection among newborns of Southern Nepal, among 17,198 newborns, identified 954 (5.5%) with omphalitis. Infection risk was 29 and 62% higher in infants receiving topical cord application of mustard oil and other unclean substances. It was also found that low-cost interventions like hand washing, skin-to-skin contact, and avoiding unclean cord applications should be promoted, as they reduced neonatal mortality and morbidity.[5] Another study on knowledge of mothers on diarrhea in children ‘dirty’ feeding bottle (23%), excessive ‘heat’ (75%) and ‘cold’(14.5%), over feeding (22.9%), top milk (4.2%) as the causes. Only 10.4% were aware of the specific measures for prevention of diarrhea.[6]


Source of Support: Nil.

Conflict of Interest: None declared.


We acknowledge the help rendered by Delon A Veigas, Desiree M D’Rozario, and Dona Daniel toward this study.

1. Common problems in newbornsLast accessed on 2013 Apr 5 Available from: http:///
2. Last accessed on 2013 Apr 27 Available from: http;///
3. Last accessed on 2013 Apr 23 Available from: http:///
4. Kaur AS. Mothers beliefs and practices regarding prevention and management of diarrhoeal diseasesIndian PaediatricsYear: 19941557
5. Last accessed on 2013 Apr 28 Available from: http:///
6. Konde JK,Elasu L. Knowledge, attitude and practices and their policy implications in childhood diarrheaJ Diarrhoeal Dis ResYear: 19921025301619238

[TableWrap ID: T1] Table 1 

Knowledge scores of mothers on various newborn problems (n=60)

[TableWrap ID: T2] Table 2 

Knowledge scores of primi mothers on common problems of newborns (n=60)

Article Categories:
  • Original Article

Keywords: Common neonatal problems, knowledge of primi mothers, newborn care .

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