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Kinetic and Mechanistic Aspects of Atom Transfer Radical Addition (ATRA) Catalyzed by Copper Complexes with Tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23051175     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Kinetic and mechanistic studies of atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) catalyzed by copper complexes with tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPMA) ligand were reported. In solution, the halide anions were found to strongly coordinate to [Cu(I)(TPMA)](+) cations, as confirmed by kinetic, cyclic voltammetry, and conductivity measurements. The equilibrium constant for atom transfer (K(ATRA) = k(a)/k(d)) utilizing benzyl thiocyanate was determined to be approximately 6 times larger for Cu(I)(TPMA)BPh(4) ((1.6 ± 0.2) × 10(-7)) than Cu(I)(TPMA)Cl ((2.8 ± 0.2) × 10(-8)) complex. This difference in reactivity between Cu(I)(TPMA)Cl and Cu(I)(TPMA)BPh(4) was reflected in the activation rate constants ((3.4 ± 0.4) × 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1) and (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10(-3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively). The fluxionality of Cu(I)(TPMA)X (X = Cl or Br) in solution was mainly the result of TPMA ligand exchange, which for the bromide complex was found to be very fast at ambient temperature (ΔH(⧧) = 29.7 kJ mol(-1), ΔS(‡) = -60.0 J K(-1) mol(-1), ΔG(⧧)(298) = 47.6 kJ mol(-1), and k(obs,298) = 2.9 × 10(4) s(-1)). Relatively strong coordination of halide anions in Cu(I)(TPMA)X prompted the possibility of activation in ATRA through partial TPMA dissociation. Indeed, no visible differences in the ATRA activity of Cu(I)(TPMA)BPh(4) were observed in the presence of as many as 5 equiv of strongly coordinating triphenylphosphine. The possibility for arm dissociation in Cu(I)(TPMA)X was further confirmed by synthesizing tris(2-(dimethylamino)phenyl)amine (TDAPA), a ligand that was structurally similar to currently most active TPMA and Me(6)TREN (tris(2-dimethylaminoethyl)amine), but had limited arm mobility due to the rigid backbone. Indeed, Cu(I)(TDAPA)Cl complex was found to be inactive in ATRA, and the activity increased only by opening the coordination site around the copper(I) center by replacing chloride anion with less coordinating counterions such as BF(4)(-) and BPh(4)(-). The results presented in this Article are significant from the mechanistic point of view because they indicate that coordinatively saturated Cu(I)(TPMA)X complexes catalyze the homolytic cleavage of carbon-halogen bond during the activation step in ATRA by prior dissociation of either halide anion or TPMA arm.
William T Eckenhoff; Ashley B Biernesser; Tomislav Pintauer
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  Inorganic chemistry     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1520-510X     ISO Abbreviation:  Inorg Chem     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-11     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0366543     Medline TA:  Inorg Chem     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University , 600 Forbes Avenue, 308 Mellon Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282, United States.
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