Document Detail

Issues in anatomy: the external anal sphincter revisited.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8859165     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Textbooks of anatomy often fail to reflect controversies or new developments in anatomy. This impinges on the conduct of examinations in anatomy with respect to whether the correct answer is what appears in the textbook or what is known in the research literature. The example of the external anal sphincter is addressed. Whereas textbooks portray this muscle as having three, essentially circular parts, past and more recent work denies this description. Rather, the sphincter consists of three loops; one formed by puborectalis, one stemming from the coccyx and one stemming from the pre-anal skin. Surgeons in training should recognise that anatomy is not a static science and that idealized descriptions that occur in textbooks do not necessarily reflect actual anatomy or controversies about it.
N Bogduk
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Australian and New Zealand journal of surgery     Volume:  66     ISSN:  0004-8682     ISO Abbreviation:  Aust N Z J Surg     Publication Date:  1996 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1996-11-19     Completed Date:  1996-11-19     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0373115     Medline TA:  Aust N Z J Surg     Country:  AUSTRALIA    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  626-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.
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MeSH Terms
Anal Canal / anatomy & histology*,  surgery
Coccyx / anatomy & histology
General Surgery / education
Muscle, Skeletal / anatomy & histology
Perineum / anatomy & histology
Pubic Bone / anatomy & histology
Rectum / anatomy & histology
Skin / anatomy & histology
Textbooks as Topic

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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