Document Detail

Isolation and characterization of a molecule stimulatory to growth of somatic embryos from early stage female gametophyte tissue of loblolly pine.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18084767     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Loblolly pine (LP, Pinus taeda) is the primary commercial species in southern forests of the US. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an effective technique to implement clonal tree production of high-value genotypes from breeding and genetic engineering programs. Unlike angiosperm embryos with attached cotyledons as seed storage organs, the diploid conifer embryo is surrounded by the unattached haploid female gametophyte (FG). The FG is not present in culture. This presents a dilemma if the FG produces necessary or regulatory compounds for embryo growth, since in culture these important compounds would be missing and would have to be added as supplements. We report here the direct evidence that extracts from early-stage FG indeed stimulate early-stage somatic embryo (SME) growth and multiplication, whereas extracts from late-stage FG inhibit early-stage SME growth. Furthermore, we have now isolated this stimulatory substance from early-stage FG tissue, and identified this substance as citric acid on the basis of NMR and mass spectrometry. We then demonstrated that topical application of citric acid to SMEs stimulates embryo colony growth at P = 0.05. Moreover, we find that there is a good correlation between the amount of citric acid isolated from FG tissue (65 nmoles per stage 2-3 FG) and the amount of citric acid that stimulates colony growth (25-50 nmoles) when applied topically to SMEs. This approach of isolating and characterizing a molecule from plant tissue, and investigating its role on SE processes can provide valuable information leading to further applications of these molecules to improve LP SE protocols.
Veronica De Silva; David Bostwick; Kristi L Burns; Charlie D Oldham; Anna Skryabina; M Cameron Sullards; Di Wu; Yalin Zhang; Sheldon W May; Gerald S Pullman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.     Date:  2007-12-13
Journal Detail:
Title:  Plant cell reports     Volume:  27     ISSN:  0721-7714     ISO Abbreviation:  Plant Cell Rep.     Publication Date:  2008 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-03-19     Completed Date:  2008-08-18     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9880970     Medline TA:  Plant Cell Rep     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  633-46     Citation Subset:  IM    
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, 30332-0620, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Citric Acid / pharmacology
Germ Cells / physiology
Germination / drug effects,  physiology
Pinus taeda / drug effects,  growth & development,  physiology*
Plant Growth Regulators / pharmacology*
Seeds / drug effects,  growth & development,  physiology*
Tissue Culture Techniques
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Plant Growth Regulators; 77-92-9/Citric Acid

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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