Document Detail

Iron and zinc supplementation promote motor development and exploratory behavior among Bangladeshi infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15447897     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Iron and zinc deficiency are prevalent during infancy in low-income countries.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to examine whether a weekly supplement of iron, zinc, iron+zinc, or a micronutrient mix (MM) of 16 vitamins and minerals would alter infant development and behavior.
DESIGN: The participants were 221 infants from rural Bangladesh at risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Development and behavior were evaluated at 6 and 12 mo of age by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II and the Home Observation Measurement of Environment (HOME) scale. In this double-blind trial, the infants were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment conditions: iron (20 mg), zinc (20 mg), iron+zinc, MM (16 vitamins and minerals, including iron and zinc), or riboflavin weekly from 6 to 12 mo. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the change in development and behavior for each supplementation group, with control for maternal education, HOME score, months breastfed, anemia, growth at 6 mo, and change in growth from 6 to 12 mo.
RESULTS: Iron and zinc administered together and with other micronutrients had a beneficial effect on infant motor development. Iron and zinc administered individually and in combination had a beneficial effect on orientation-engagement. Two-thirds of the infants were mildly anemic, no treatment effects on hemoglobin concentration were observed, and hemoglobin was not associated with measures of development or behavior.
CONCLUSION: The beneficial effects of weekly iron and zinc supplementation on motor development and orientation-engagement suggest that infants benefit from these minerals when administered together.
Maureen M Black; Abdullah H Baqui; K Zaman; Lars Ake Persson; Shams El Arifeen; Katherine Le; Scot W McNary; Monowara Parveen; Jena D Hamadani; Robert E Black
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of clinical nutrition     Volume:  80     ISSN:  0002-9165     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Clin. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2004 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-09-27     Completed Date:  2004-10-19     Revised Date:  2014-09-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376027     Medline TA:  Am J Clin Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  903-10     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
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MeSH Terms
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / complications,  drug therapy,  epidemiology
Child Development / drug effects*,  physiology
Dietary Supplements
Double-Blind Method
Drug Combinations
Drug Synergism
Exploratory Behavior / drug effects
Growth / drug effects
Infant Behavior / drug effects*,  physiology
Infant Nutrition Disorders* / complications,  drug therapy,  epidemiology
Iron, Dietary / administration & dosage*,  therapeutic use
Micronutrients / administration & dosage*,  deficiency,  therapeutic use
Psychomotor Performance / drug effects
Riboflavin / administration & dosage,  therapeutic use
Rural Population
Zinc / administration & dosage*,  deficiency,  therapeutic use
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Drug Combinations; 0/Iron, Dietary; 0/Micronutrients; J41CSQ7QDS/Zinc; TLM2976OFR/Riboflavin
Comment In:
Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1):201; author reply 201-2   [PMID:  16002820 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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