Document Detail

Iron and zinc interactions in humans.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9701159     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world; zinc deficiency is associated with poor growth and development and impaired immune response. Several Third World countries are taking measures to increase the dietary intake of iron and zinc with fortification of foods or dietary supplements. Several studies showed that high iron concentrations can negatively affect zinc absorption in adults when these trace minerals are given in solution. However, when iron and zinc are given in a meal, this effect is not observed. Solomons (J Nutr 1986;116:927-35) postulated that the total amount of ionic species affects the absorption of zinc and that a total dose of >25 mg Fe may produce a measurable effect on zinc absorption. This could occur if iron supplements are taken with a meal, and iron experts recommend that iron supplements be taken between meals. Recent studies using stable isotopes showed that fortifying foods with iron at current fortification amounts has no adverse effect on zinc absorption. There are 5 zinc salts listed as generally recommended as safe (GRAS) by the US Food and Drug Administration for food fortification. From 1970 to 1987, the total amount of zinc salts used in food continually increased, with zinc oxide and zinc sulfate showing the largest increases. Twelve iron sources are listed as GRAS; elemental iron has become the source of choice because it is less expensive to produce and has fewer organoleptic problems. Use of ferrous fumarate is also increasing.
P Whittaker
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of clinical nutrition     Volume:  68     ISSN:  0002-9165     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Clin. Nutr.     Publication Date:  1998 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1998-08-19     Completed Date:  1998-08-19     Revised Date:  2005-11-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376027     Medline TA:  Am J Clin Nutr     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  442S-446S     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC 20204, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Food, Fortified
Iron / administration & dosage,  metabolism*
Zinc / administration & dosage,  metabolism*
Reg. No./Substance:
7439-89-6/Iron; 7440-66-6/Zinc

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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