Document Detail

Iron in pregnancy - how do we secure an appropriate iron status in the mother and child?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22123639     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy are risk factors for preterm delivery, prematurity, and small for gestational age birth weight. Iron deficiency has a negative effect on intelligence and behavioral development in the infant. It is essential to prevent iron deficiency in the fetus by preventing iron deficiency in the pregnant woman. The requirements for absorbed iron increase during pregnancy from ∼1.0 mg/day in the first trimester to 7.5 mg/day in the third trimester. More than 90% of Scandinavian women of reproductive age have a dietary iron intake below the recommended 15 mg/day. Among nonpregnant women of reproductive age, ∼40% have plasma ferritin ≤30 μg/l, i.e. an unfavorable iron status with respect to pregnancy. An adequate iron status during pregnancy implies body iron reserves ≥500 mg at conception, but only 15-20% of women have iron reserves of such a magnitude. Iron supplements during pregnancy reduce the prevalence of IDA. In Europe, IDA can be prevented by a general low-dose iron prophylaxis of 30-40 mg ferrous iron taken between meals from early pregnancy to delivery. In affluent societies, individual iron prophylaxis tailored by the ferritin concentration should be preferred to general prophylaxis. Suggested guidelines are: ferritin >70 μg/l, no iron supplements; ferritin 31-70 μg/l, 30-40 mg ferrous iron per day, and ferritin ≤30 μg/l, 60-80 mg ferrous iron per day. In women with ferritin <15 μg/l, i.e. depleted iron reserves and possible IDA, therapeutic doses of 100 mg ferrous iron per day should be advised.
Nils Milman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2011-11-25
Journal Detail:
Title:  Annals of nutrition & metabolism     Volume:  59     ISSN:  1421-9697     ISO Abbreviation:  Ann. Nutr. Metab.     Publication Date:  2011  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-11-29     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8105511     Medline TA:  Ann Nutr Metab     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  50-4     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Departments of Clinical Biochemistry and Obstetrics, Næstved Hospital, Næstved, Denmark.
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