Document Detail

Iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in the first two years of life: strategies to prevent loss of developmental potential.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22043885     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
This article examines the association of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) with children's development and behavior, with the goal of providing recommendations to prevent the developmental loss associated with these conditions. Children's risk for ID and IDA is particularly high during the second 6 months of life when prenatal stores are depleted. Longitudinal studies from infancy through adolescence and early adulthood suggest that socioemotional development is uniquely vulnerable to ID and IDA, perhaps being associated with shared neural pathways, and the effects of early iron deficiencies may be irreversible. In addition to direct effects on brain function, ID and IDA may also affect child development indirectly through non-responsive mother-child interactions. Maternal ID is a global problem that may contribute to high rates of maternal depression and non-responsive caregiving. Intervention trials illustrate that children benefit from both nutritional intervention and early learning interventions that promote responsive mother-child interactions. Recommendations to reduce the developmental loss associated with ID and IDA are to reduce the incidence of these conditions by efforts to prevent premature birth, delay cord clamping, ensure adequate maternal iron status, provide iron-rich complementary foods, and ensure access to postnatal interventions that promote responsive mother-infant interaction patterns and early learning opportunities for infants.
Maureen M Black; Anna M Quigg; Kristen M Hurley; Margery Reese Pepper
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nutrition reviews     Volume:  69 Suppl 1     ISSN:  1753-4887     ISO Abbreviation:  Nutr. Rev.     Publication Date:  2011 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-11-02     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376405     Medline TA:  Nutr Rev     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  S64-70     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
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