Document Detail


Iron Requirements of Infants And Toddlers: A Position Paper By The ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  24135983     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide and young children are a special risk group since their rapid growth leads to high iron requirements. Risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) include low birth weight, high cow's milk intake, low intake of iron-rich complementary foods, low socioeconomic status and immigrant status.The aim of this position paper is to review the field and provide recommendations regarding iron requirements in infants and toddlers, including those of moderately or marginally low birth weight.There is no evidence that iron supplementation of pregnant women improves iron status in their offspring in a European setting. Delayed cord clamping reduces the risk of iron deficiency. There is insufficient evidence to support general iron supplementation of healthy, European infants and toddlers of normal birth weight. Formula-fed infants up to 6 months of age should receive iron fortified infant formula, with an iron content of 4-8 mg/L (0.6-1.2 mg/kg/d). Marginally low birth weight infants (2000-2500 g) should receive iron supplements of 1-2 mg/kg/d. Follow-on formulas should be iron-fortified. However, there is not enough evidence to determine the optimal iron concentration in follow-on formula. From the age of 6 months, all infants and toddlers should receive iron-rich (complementary) foods including meat products and/or iron fortified foods. Unmodified cow's milk should not be fed as the main milk drink to infants before the age of 12 months and intake should be limited to <500 mL daily in toddlers. It is important to ensure that this dietary advice reaches high risk groups such as socioeconomically disadvantaged families and immigrant families.
Authors:
Magnus Domellöf; Christian Braegger; Cristina Campoy; Virginie Colomb; Tamas Decsi; Mary Fewtrell; Iva Hojsak; Walter Mihatsch; Christian Molgaard; Raanan Shamir; Dominique Turck; Johannes van Goudoever;
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-10-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1536-4801     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2013 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-10-18     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8211545     Medline TA:  J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
*Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden †University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland ‡Department of Pediatrics, University of Granada, Spain §Hospital Necker Paris France ||Department of Paediatrics, University of Pecs, Hungary ¶MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK #University Children's Hospital Zagreb, Croatia **Department of Paediatrics, Deaconry Hospital, Schwaebisch Hall, Germany ††Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, and 1Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Denmark ‡‡Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel §§Jeanne de Flandre Children's Hospital, Lille University Faculty of Medicine, France ||||Pediatrics, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam Netherlands and Pediatrics, Emma Children's Hospital-AMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
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