Document Detail

Iodine nutrition in breast-fed infants is impaired by maternal smoking.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  14715847     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Lack of iodine for thyroid hormone formation during the fetal stage and/or the first years of life may lead to developmental brain damage. During the period of breastfeeding, thyroid function of the infant depends on iodine in maternal milk. We studied healthy, pregnant women admitted for delivery and their newborn infants. Cotinine in urine and serum was used to classify mothers as smokers (n = 50) or nonsmokers (n = 90). Smoking and nonsmoking mothers had identical urinary iodine on d 5 after delivery, but smoking was associated with reduced iodine content in breast milk (smokers 26.0 micro g/liter vs. nonsmokers 53.8 micro g/liter; geometric mean, P < 0.001) and in the infants' urine (smokers 33.3 micro g/liter, vs. nonsmokers 50.4 micro g/liter, P = 0.005). Results were consistent in multivariate linear models and by logistic regression analysis. The odds ratio for smoking vs. nonsmoking mothers to have lower breast milk than urinary iodine content was 8.4 (95% confidence interval, 3.5-20.1). In smokers, iodine transfer into breast milk correlated negatively to urinary cotinine concentration. Smoking mothers had significantly higher serum levels of thiocyanate, which may competitively inhibit the sodium-iodide symporter responsible for iodide transport in the lactating mammary gland. Smoking during the period of breastfeeding increases the risk of iodine deficiency-induced brain damage in the child. Women who breastfeed should not smoke, but if they do, an extra iodine supplement should be considered.
Peter Laurberg; Susanne B Nøhr; Klaus M Pedersen; Ebbe Fuglsang
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism     Volume:  89     ISSN:  0021-972X     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.     Publication Date:  2004 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-01-12     Completed Date:  2004-02-11     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0375362     Medline TA:  J Clin Endocrinol Metab     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  181-7     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Endocrinology and Medicine, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark.
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MeSH Terms
Birth Weight
Brain Diseases / etiology
Breast Feeding*
Cotinine / blood,  urine
Fetal Blood / chemistry
Infant, Newborn
Iodine / analysis,  deficiency*,  urine
Milk, Human / chemistry
Nutritional Status*
Odds Ratio
Risk Factors
Smoking / adverse effects*
Thiocyanates / blood
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Thiocyanates; 302-04-5/thiocyanate; 486-56-6/Cotinine; 7553-56-2/Iodine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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