Document Detail

Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19088150     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The World Health Organization (WHO) recently increased their recommended iodine intake during pregnancy from 200 to 250 microg/d and suggested that a median urinary iodine (UI) concentration of 150-249 microg/L indicates adequate iodine intake in pregnant women. Thyrotropin concentrations in blood collected from newborns 3-4 d after birth may be a sensitive indicator of even mild iodine deficiency during late pregnancy; a <3% frequency of thyrotropin values >5 mU/L indicates iodine sufficiency. New reference data and a simple collection system may facilitate use of the median UI concentration as an indicator of iodine status in newborns. In areas of severe iodine deficiency, maternal and fetal hypothyroxinemia can cause cretinism and adversely affect cognitive development in children; to prevent fetal damage, iodine should be given before or early in pregnancy. Whether mild-to-moderate maternal iodine deficiency produces more subtle changes in cognitive function in offspring is unclear; no controlled intervention studies have measured long-term clinical outcomes. Cross-sectional studies have, with few exceptions, reported impaired intellectual function and motor skills in children from iodine-deficient areas, but many of these studies were likely confounded by other factors that affect child development. In countries or regions where <90% of households are using iodized salt and the median UI concentration in school-age children is <100 microg/L, the WHO recommends iodine supplementation in pregnancy and infancy.
Michael B Zimmermann
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review     Date:  2008-12-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of clinical nutrition     Volume:  89     ISSN:  1938-3207     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Clin. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2009 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-01-19     Completed Date:  2009-02-11     Revised Date:  2009-05-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376027     Medline TA:  Am J Clin Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  668S-72S     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Human Nutrition Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zentrum, Zürich, Switzerland.
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MeSH Terms
Biological Markers / urine
Cognition Disorders / etiology
Dietary Supplements
Growth Disorders / etiology
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / physiology*
Infant, Newborn
Iodine / administration & dosage*,  blood,  deficiency*,  therapeutic use,  urine
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / physiology*
Nutrition Policy
Nutritional Requirements*
Sodium Chloride, Dietary / administration & dosage,  therapeutic use
Thyrotropin / blood
Young Adult
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biological Markers; 0/Sodium Chloride, Dietary; 0/iodized salt; 7553-56-2/Iodine; 9002-71-5/Thyrotropin

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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