Document Detail

Invited review: Annatto usage and bleaching in dairy foods.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20723662     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Annatto is a yellow/orange colorant that is widely used in the food industry, particularly in the dairy industry. Annatto, consisting of the carotenoids bixin and norbixin, is most commonly added to produce orange cheese, such as Cheddar, to achieve a consistent color over seasonal changes. This colorant is not all retained in the cheese, and thus a percentage remains in the whey, which is highly undesirable. As a result, whey is often bleached. Hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide are the 2 bleaching agents currently approved for bleaching whey in the United States. Recent studies have highlighted the negative effect of bleaching on whey flavor while concurrently there is a dearth of current studies on bleaching conditions and efficacy. Recent international mandates have placed additional concern on the use of benzoyl peroxide as a bleaching agent. This review discusses the advantages, disadvantages, regulatory concerns, flavor implications, and optimal usage conditions of 2 widely used bleaching agents, hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide, as well as a few alternative methods including lipoxygenase, peroxidase, and lactoperoxidase systems.
E J Kang; R E Campbell; E Bastian; M A Drake
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of dairy science     Volume:  93     ISSN:  1525-3198     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Dairy Sci.     Publication Date:  2010 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-08-20     Completed Date:  2010-11-30     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  2985126R     Medline TA:  J Dairy Sci     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  3891-901     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, Southeast Dairy Foods Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Benzoyl Peroxide / metabolism
Bleaching Agents* / pharmacology
Carotenoids* / analysis,  pharmacology
Dairy Products* / analysis
Food Coloring Agents* / pharmacology
Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
Lactoperoxidase / metabolism
Legislation, Food
Milk / chemistry,  drug effects
Oxidation-Reduction / drug effects
Plant Extracts* / analysis,  pharmacology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Bleaching Agents; 0/Food Coloring Agents; 0/Plant Extracts; 1393-63-1/annatto; 36-88-4/Carotenoids; 7722-84-1/Hydrogen Peroxide; 94-36-0/Benzoyl Peroxide; EC 1.11.1.-/Lactoperoxidase

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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