Document Detail

Intravenous therapy for hypertensive emergencies, part 1.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19635770     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
PURPOSE: Intravenous antihypertensive agents for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies are reviewed. SUMMARY: An estimated 500,000 people in the United States experience a hypertensive crisis annually. Hypertensive emergency is associated with significant morbidity in the form of end-organ damage. Rapid controlled reduction of blood pressure (BP) may be necessary to prevent or minimize end-organ damage. I.V. antihypertensive agents available for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies are, in general, characterized by a short onset and offset of action and predictable responses during dosage adjustments to reach BP goals, without excessive adjustment or extreme fluctuations in BP. Nicardipine, nitroprusside, fenoldopam, nitroglycerin, enalaprilat, hydralazine, labetalol, esmolol, and phentolamine are i.v. antihypertensive agents recommended for use in hypertensive emergency by the seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Since the publication of these recommendations, another i.v. antihypertensive agent, clevidipine, became commercially available. The selection of a specific agent should be based on the agent's pharmacology and patient-specific factors, such as comorbidity and the presence of end-organ damage. CONCLUSION: The rapid recognition and initiation of therapy are key to minimizing end-organ damage in patients with hypertensive emergency. Tailoring drug selection according to individual patient characteristics can optimize the management and potential outcomes of patients with hypertensive emergency.
Denise Rhoney; W Frank Peacock
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists     Volume:  66     ISSN:  1535-2900     ISO Abbreviation:  Am J Health Syst Pharm     Publication Date:  2009 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-07-28     Completed Date:  2009-11-03     Revised Date:  2009-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9503023     Medline TA:  Am J Health Syst Pharm     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1343-52     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Antihypertensive Agents / administration & dosage,  therapeutic use
Emergency Medical Services*
Hypertension / drug therapy*
Infusions, Intravenous*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antihypertensive Agents
Erratum In:
Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009 Oct 1;66(19):1687
Note: Dosage error in article text

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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