Document Detail


Intravenous streptokinase. A reappraisal of its therapeutic use in acute myocardial infarction.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  2191849     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Streptokinase, the first of the thrombolytic agents to be used in acute myocardial infarction, has now been administered to many thousands of patients with this condition. Since early intervention and accessibility of care is paramount in these patients, intravenous infusion of streptokinase has largely replaced intracoronary use. Results of major trials (GISSI, ISIS-2 and ISAM) comparing streptokinase with standard treatment in more than 30,000 patients prove convincingly that intravenous streptokinase increases patient survival after myocardial infarction. The largest trial, ISIS-2, demonstrated a 23% reduction in 5-week vascular mortality after streptokinase use. The greatest benefits occur where streptokinase infusion is initiated early after symptom onset, although late benefit has been observed in patients treated up to 24 hours after pain onset. Importantly, mortality is further decreased by combining streptokinase with aspirin, as shown by a 53% reduction in mortality using the combination in the ISIS-2 trial. Mortality has also been reduced in trials investigating the use of the thrombolytic agents rt-PA and anistreplase. Streptokinase and rt-PA produced similar reductions in mortality in the recent GISSI-2 and International t-PA/Streptokinase Mortality trials, findings which may be further clarified by ongoing comparative trials such as ISIS-3. Reperfusion of about 50 to 60% of occluded coronary arteries occurs with intravenous streptokinase, and left ventricular function is improved. Direct comparisons with rt-PA show a superior effect for the newer agent on early reperfusion, but a similar ability to salvage myocardial function. The complexities of the relationship between reperfusion, left ventricular function and mortality constitute an area of considerable clinical interest requiring further study to clearly differentiate between the drugs available to the physician. The most common adverse events observed during intravenous streptokinase infusion are bleeding complications. An incidence of 3.6% for minor bleeding and 0.4% for major haemorrhage (requiring transfusion) is derived from the combined results of the GISSI and ISIS-2 studies. Bleeding does not appear to be more frequent or severe with intravenous streptokinase than with the more fibrin-selective agent, rt-PA. While the risk to benefit ratio of sequential heparin following streptokinase therapy remains equivocal, the adjuvant use of aspirin confers a clinical advantage over streptokinase alone. In conclusion, streptokinase has now been proven to reduce mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction, with an acceptable risk of bleeding complications. Given the substantial data that have now accumulated with extensive clinical experience, intravenous streptokinase should be considered a first-line agent in suitable patients.
Authors:
K L Goa; J M Henwood; J F Stolz; M S Langley; S P Clissold
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Drugs     Volume:  39     ISSN:  0012-6667     ISO Abbreviation:  Drugs     Publication Date:  1990 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1990-07-20     Completed Date:  1990-07-20     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7600076     Medline TA:  Drugs     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  693-719     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
ADIS Drug Information Services, Auckland, New Zealand.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Fibrinolysis / drug effects
Humans
Infusions, Intravenous
Myocardial Infarction / drug therapy*
Streptokinase / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  therapeutic use*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
EC 3.4.-/Streptokinase

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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