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Intracerebral hemorrhage secondary to intravenous and endovascular intraarterial revascularization therapies in acute ischemic stroke: an update on risk factors, predictors, and management.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22463112     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) secondary to intravenous and intraarterial revascularization strategies for emergent treatment of acute ischemic stroke is associated with high mortality. ICH from systemic thrombolysis typically occurs within the first 24-36 hours of treatment initiation and is characterized by rapid hematoma development and growth. Pathophysiological mechanisms of revascularization therapy-induced ICH are complex and involve a combination of several distinct processes, including the direct effect of thrombolytic agents, disruption of the blood-brain barrier secondary to ischemia, and direct vessel damage from wire and microcatheter manipulations during endovascular procedures. Several definitions of ICH secondary to thrombolysis currently exist, depending on clinical or radiological characteristics used. Multiple studies have investigated clinical and laboratory risk factors associated with higher rates of ICH in this setting. Early ischemic changes seen on noncontrast CT scanning are strongly associated with higher rates of hemorrhage. Modern imaging techniques, particularly CT perfusion, provide rapid assessment of hemodynamic parameters of the brain. Specific patterns of CT perfusion maps can help identify patients who are likely to benefit from revascularization or to develop hemorrhagic complications. There are no established guidelines that describe management of revascularization therapy-induced ICH, and great variability in treatment protocols currently exist. General principles that apply to the management of spontaneous ICH might not be as effective for revascularization therapy-induced ICH. In this article, the authors review current knowledge of risk factors and radiological predictors of ICH secondary to stroke revascularization techniques and analyze medical and surgical management strategies for ICH in this setting.
Authors:
Maxim Mokin; Peter Kan; Tareq Kass-Hout; Adib A Abla; Travis M Dumont; Kenneth V Snyder; L Nelson Hopkins; Adnan H Siddiqui; Elad I Levy
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Neurosurgical focus     Volume:  32     ISSN:  1092-0684     ISO Abbreviation:  Neurosurg Focus     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-04-02     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100896471     Medline TA:  Neurosurg Focus     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  E2     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Departments of Neurology.
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