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Intracerebral Hemorrhage Associated with Oral Phenylephrine Use: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25156786     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND: Prior reports have linked both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke to use of sympathomimetic drugs including phenylephrine. The purpose of this study is to describe the first case, to our knowledge of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after oral use of phenylephrine and to systematically review the literature on phenylephrine and acute stroke.
METHODS: A case report and review of the literature.
RESULTS: A 59-year-old female presented with thunderclap headache, right hemiparesis, aphasia, and left gaze deviation. Head computed tomography (CT) showed a left frontal ICH with intraventricular and subarachnoid extension. She had no significant past medical history. For the previous 30 days, the patient was taking multiple common cold remedies containing phenylephrine to treat sinusitis. CT and magnetic resonance angiography showed no causative vascular abnormality. Catheter cerebral angiography supported reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). Phenylephrine was determined to be the most likely etiology for her hemorrhage. A review of the literature, found 7 cases describing phenylephrine use with acute stroke occurrence: female, 5 of 7 (71%); route of administration, nasal (n = 3), ophthalmic (n = 2), intravenous (n = 1), intracorporeal injection (n = 1). Stroke types were subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 5), ICH (n = 4), and ischemic (n = 1). One case reported RCVS after phenylephrine use.
CONCLUSIONS: It is scientifically plausible that phenylephrine may cause strokes, consistent with the pharmacologic properties and adverse event profiles of similar amphetamine-like sympathomimetics. As RCVS has been well described in association with over-the-counter sympathomimetics, a likely, although not definitive, causal relationship between phenylephrine and ICH is proposed.
Authors:
Brian E Tark; Steven R Messe; Clotilde Balucani; Steven R Levine
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2014-8-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1532-8511     ISO Abbreviation:  J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis     Publication Date:  2014 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-8-26     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9111633     Medline TA:  J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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