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Interpreting food processing through dietary mechanical properties: A Lemur catta case study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22610896     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Knowledge of dietary mechanical properties can be informative about physical consequences to consumers during ingestion and mastication. In this article, we examine how Tamarindus indica fruits can affect dental morphology in a population of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Beza Mahafaly special reserve in southwestern Madagascar. Ring-tailed lemurs in tamarind dominated gallery forests exhibit extreme wear and tooth loss on their postcanine dentition that has been related to processing T. indica fruits. We measured and compared mechanical properties of individual food parts in the diet of ring-tailed lemurs in different seasons in 1999-2000, 2008, and 2010. Fracture toughness, hardness, and modulus of foods were measured with a portable mechanical tester. The ripe fruits of T. indica are indeed the toughest and hardest foods ingested by the lemurs. In addition, they are among the largest foods consumed, require high numbers of ingestive bites to process, and are the most frequently eaten by volume. During controlled cutting tests of the ripe fruit shell, multiple runaway side cracks form alongside the cut. Similarly, the lemurs repeatedly bite the ripe shell during feeding and thereby introduce multiple cracks that eventually fragment the shell. Studies of enamel microstructure (e.g., Lucas et al.: BioEssays 30 (2008) 374-385; Campbell et al., 2011) advance the idea that the thin enamel of ring-tailed lemur teeth is susceptible to substantial micro-cracking that rapidly erodes the teeth. We conclude that micro-cracking from repeated loads, in combination with the mechanical and physical properties of the fruit, is primarily responsible for the observed dental damage. Am J Phys Anthropol 148:205-214, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Authors:
Nayuta Yamashita; Frank P Cuozzo; Michelle L Sauther
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of physical anthropology     Volume:  148     ISSN:  1096-8644     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.     Publication Date:  2012 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-05-21     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0400654     Medline TA:  Am J Phys Anthropol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  205-14     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1692. nayuta2009@gmail.com.
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