Document Detail

Interpretation of capnography.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9801479     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The anesthetist will get the most information out of a capnograph if it is examined systematically. First, the anesthetist must determine whether exhaled CO2 (i.e., a waveform) is present. The differential diagnosis of absent CO2 includes esophageal intubation, accidental tracheal extubation, disconnection of the breathing circuit, complete obstruction of the endotracheal tube or conducting system (kink, inspissated blood or secretions, extremely severe bronchospasm) or of the breathing circuit, apnea, and cardiac arrest. Second, the shape of the waveform must be analyzed systematically by looking at, and in sequence, phase I (inspiratory baseline, which should be zero); phase II (expiratory upstroke, which should be nearly perpendicular to the inspiratory baseline); phase III (expiratory or alveolar plateau, which should be a straight, nearly horizontal, line); and phase IV (inspiratory downstroke, which should be nearly perpendicular to the inspiratory baseline). This discussion will follow this systematic approach but will emphasize diagnosis that can be obtained from the phase III alveolar plateau.
J L Benumof
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  AANA journal     Volume:  66     ISSN:  0094-6354     ISO Abbreviation:  AANA J     Publication Date:  1998 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1998-11-05     Completed Date:  1998-11-05     Revised Date:  2005-11-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0431420     Medline TA:  AANA J     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  169-76     Citation Subset:  N    
University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Anesthesia, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Bronchial Spasm / diagnosis
Capnography / instrumentation,  methods,  nursing*
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Diagnosis, Differential
Nurse Anesthetists*
Nursing Assessment / methods*
Tidal Volume

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