Document Detail

Interorgan glutamine flow in metabolic acidosis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  3322041     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Acid-base homeostasis depends on glutamine flow from producer organs to those capable of generating bicarbonate. Glutamine oxidation, the prerequisite metabolic transformation, can be expressed by many sites; however, net base generation requires that glutamine flow be directed to a specific organ, the kidney. Normally, glutamine flows from the periphery to the splanchnic bed, providing a major fuel and supporting ureagenesis. Glutamine flow in chronic metabolic acidosis, on the other hand, is rerouted to the kidneys; asymmetrical distribution of NH+4 and HCO3- into the urine and renal vein subserves restoration of alkaline reserves. Clearly, glutamine flows in accordance with physiological demands, yet little is known of the regulatory mechanisms. As a model, chronic metabolic acidosis alters two aspects of this vital flow, its direction and magnitude. Characteristically the direction of flow is away from the splanchnic bed and into the kidneys associated with a marked fall in arterial glutamine concentration, restoring arterial level returns flow to the splanchnic bed sink. Thus glutamine homeostasis is sacrificed to impart direction to interorgan glutamine flow. Although multiple sites contribute to glutamine homeostasis, of great strategic importance is the potent hepatic glutaminase flux activated by portal venous NH+4 fed forward by gut metabolism; local hydrogen ion concentration modulates the effectiveness of this activator. Acute regulation of flow direction can be exerted by the lungs in determining the prevailing pCO2 and cellular acidity; respiratory compensation in chronic acidosis allows the expression of hepatic glutaminase, thereby suppressing arterial glutamine concentration. The enormous magnitude of glutamine flowing from muscle to the kidneys is supported by adaptive increases in glutamine synthetase and mitochondrial glutaminase, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
T C Welbourne
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of physiology     Volume:  253     ISSN:  0002-9513     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Physiol.     Publication Date:  1987 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1988-01-28     Completed Date:  1988-01-28     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0370511     Medline TA:  Am J Physiol     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  F1069-76     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Shreveport 71130.
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MeSH Terms
Acid-Base Equilibrium
Acidosis / metabolism*
Glutamine / metabolism*,  pharmacokinetics
Splanchnic Circulation
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:

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