Document Detail

Intermittent electrical stimulation redistributes pressure and promotes tissue oxygenation in loaded muscles of individuals with spinal cord injury.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20884840     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe form of pressure ulcer that originates at the bone-muscle interface. It results from mechanical damage and ischemic injury due to unrelieved pressure. Currently, there are no established clinical methods to detect the formation of DTI. Moreover, despite the many recommended methods for preventing pressure ulcers, none so far has significantly reduced the incidence of DTI. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a new electrical stimulation-based intervention, termed intermittent electrical stimulation (IES), in ameliorating the factors leading to DTI in individuals with compromised mobility and sensation. Specifically, we sought to determine whether IES-induced contractions in the gluteal muscles can 1) reduce pressure in tissue surrounding bony prominences susceptible to the development of DTI and 2) increase oxygenation in deep tissue. Experiments were conducted in individuals with spinal cord injury, and two paradigms of IES were utilized to induce contractions in the gluteus maximus muscles of the seated participants. Changes in surface pressure around the ischial tuberosities were assessed using a pressure-sensing mattress, and changes in deep tissue oxygenation were indirectly assessed using T₂*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Both IES paradigms significantly reduced pressure around the bony prominences in the buttocks by an average of 10-26% (P < 0.05). Furthermore, both IES paradigms induced significant increases in T₂* signal intensity (SI), indicating significant increases in tissue oxygenation, which were sustained for the duration of each 10-min trial (P < 0.05). Maximal increases in SI ranged from 2-3.3% (arbitrary units). Direct measurements of oxygenation in adult rats revealed that IES produces up to a 100% increase in tissue oxygenation. The results suggest that IES directly targets factors contributing to the development of DTI in people with reduced mobility and sensation and may therefore be an effective method for the prevention of deep pressure ulcers.
Selina Gyawali; Leandro Solis; Su Ling Chong; Cara Curtis; Peter Seres; Isaak Kornelsen; Richard Thompson; Vivian K Mushahwar
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-09-30
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)     Volume:  110     ISSN:  1522-1601     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Appl. Physiol.     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-01-13     Completed Date:  2011-08-02     Revised Date:  2013-09-26    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8502536     Medline TA:  J Appl Physiol (1985)     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  246-55     Citation Subset:  IM    
Centre for Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
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MeSH Terms
Electric Stimulation / methods*
Middle Aged
Muscle, Skeletal / physiopathology*
Oxygen / metabolism*
Oxygen Consumption*
Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology*
Young Adult
Reg. No./Substance:

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