Document Detail

Interleukin-6: a bone marrow stromal cell paracrine signal that induces neuroendocrine differentiation and modulates autophagy in bone metastatic PCa cells.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22441019     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Autophagy reallocates nutrients and clears normal cells of damaged proteins and organelles. In the context of metastatic disease, invading cancer cells hijack autophagic processes to survive and adapt in the host microenvironment. We sought to understand how autophagy is regulated in the metastatic niche for prostate cancer (PCa) cells where bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) paracrine signaling induces PCa neuroendocrine differentiation (NED). In PCa, this transdifferentiation of metastatic PCa cells to neuronal-like cells correlates with advanced disease. Because autophagy provides a survival advantage for cancer cells and promotes cell differentiation, we hypothesized that autophagy mediates PCa NED in the bone. Thus, we determined the ability of paracrine factors in conditioned media (CM) from two separate BMSC subtypes, HS5 and HS27a, to induce autophagy in C4-2 and C4-2B bone metastatic PCa cells by characterizing the autophagy marker, LC3. Unlike HS27a CM, HS5 CM induced LC3 accumulation in PCa cells, suggesting autophagy was induced and indicating that HS5 and HS27a secrete a different milieu of paracrine factors that influence PCa autophagy. We identified interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine more highly expressed in HS5 cells than in HS27a cells, as a paracrine factor that regulates PCa autophagy. Pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 activity did not attenuate LC3 accumulation, implying that IL-6 regulates NED and autophagy through different pathways. Finally, chloroquine inhibition of autophagic flux blocked PCa NED; hence autophagic flux maintains NED. Our studies imply that autophagy is cytoprotective for PCa cells in the bone, thus targeting autophagy is a potential therapeutic strategy.
Nikki A Delk; Mary C Farach-Carson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2012-04-01
Journal Detail:
Title:  Autophagy     Volume:  8     ISSN:  1554-8635     ISO Abbreviation:  Autophagy     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-08-16     Completed Date:  2012-11-06     Revised Date:  2013-07-12    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101265188     Medline TA:  Autophagy     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  650-63     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Autophagy* / drug effects
Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects,  metabolism*
Bone Neoplasms / metabolism,  secondary*
Cell Differentiation* / drug effects
Cell Line, Tumor
Culture Media, Conditioned / pharmacology
Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism
Interleukin-6 / metabolism*
Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism
Models, Biological
Neuroendocrine Cells / drug effects,  pathology*
Neutralization Tests
Paracrine Communication* / drug effects
Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism,  pathology
STAT3 Transcription Factor / antagonists & inhibitors,  metabolism
Signal Transduction / drug effects
Stromal Cells / drug effects,  metabolism
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Culture Media, Conditioned; 0/Interleukin-6; 0/Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0/STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0/STAT3 protein, human; 0/light chain 3, human; 147336-22-9/Green Fluorescent Proteins

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