Document Detail

Interferon-γ plays a role in paraquat-induced neurodegeneration involving oxidative and proinflammatory pathways.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21482445     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly pesticides, may be an important etiological factor in Parkinson's disease (PD); and evidence suggests a role for microglia-dependent inflammatory and oxidative processes in nigrostriatal pathology induced by such toxins. Yet, the events mediating microglial activation and their effects are not fully known. To this end, we hypothesized that the proinflammatory cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), may be a prime factor in the pathogenesis of PD, given its critical role in regulating microglial responses to pathogens. Indeed, the present investigation demonstrated that genetic deletion of IFN-γ protected substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine (DA) neurons from the toxic effects of the pesticide, paraquat, and normalized changes in inflammatory and oxidative factors within this brain region. Specifically, IFN-γ knockout prevented the paraquat-induced morphological signs of microglial activation and expression of key nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits, while also preventing time-dependent changes in proinflammatory enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS], cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2]), cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]), and signaling factors (c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK], p38 MAP kinase [p38], Signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 [STAT1], nuclear factor kappa B [NF-κB]). Moreover, paraquat transiently suppressed substantia nigra pars compacta expression of trophic and proneuroplastic factors (cyclic-AMP response element binding protein [CREB], brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]), and IFN-γ deficiency again reversed these effects. These data suggest that IFN-γ is important for paraquat-induced neurodegeneration and the accompanying oxidative, inflammatory, and trophic changes that characterize the response to the toxin. Targeting IFN-γ could thus have therapeutic implications for PD and other neurodegenerative conditions that involve multiple inflammatory pathways.
Emily N Mangano; Darcy Litteljohn; Remmick So; Eric Nelson; Sarah Peters; Cheri Bethune; Jessica Bobyn; Shawn Hayley
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-4-9
Journal Detail:
Title:  Neurobiology of aging     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1558-1497     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-4-12     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8100437     Medline TA:  Neurobiol Aging     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Institute of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
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