Document Detail

Interactions between the direct and indirect effects of predators determine life history evolution in a killifish.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18180455     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The ecological impacts of the indirect effects of predators are well established, but the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Predators often decrease prey density, which indirectly increases the resources available to surviving prey. This ecological effect could provide a link to evolution because it is generally assumed that resource availability influences life history evolution. Yet, predictions from theory that consider food availability are inconsistent, and evidence for an important role of resources in shaping life history evolution is absent. We compared life history traits in a Trinidadian killifish, Rivulus hartii, from fish communities that differ in predation intensity; predators are associated with lower population density and faster growth rates. To determine whether the indirect effects of predators influence evolutionary change, we reared second-generation-born fish under two food levels that approximated natural differences in resources between communities. Rivulus from sites with predators are younger and smaller at maturity. They have increased reproductive investment and produce many small eggs and smaller hatchlings. Such divergence is predicted as a direct effect of predation. We also found significant interactions between predator community and food level for age and size at maturity, fecundity, and egg size. These interactions, whereby the differences between communities were more pronounced at high-food levels, argue that evolution in Rivulus has been influenced by the indirect effects of predators mediated through resource availability. Rivulus from sites with predators better exploit the higher resources in those habitats. Therefore, both direct and indirect effects of predators have evolutionary consequences.
Matthew R Walsh; David N Reznick
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.     Date:  2008-01-07
Journal Detail:
Title:  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America     Volume:  105     ISSN:  1091-6490     ISO Abbreviation:  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.     Publication Date:  2008 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-01-16     Completed Date:  2008-02-06     Revised Date:  2013-06-06    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7505876     Medline TA:  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  594-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Adaptation, Physiological
Biological Evolution
Food Chain
Fundulidae / physiology*
Models, Biological
Population Density
Population Dynamics
Predatory Behavior*
Time Factors

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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