Document Detail


Integrating impairments in reaction time and executive function using a diffusion model framework.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23334775     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Using Ratcliff's diffusion model and ex-Gaussian decomposition, we directly evaluate the role individual differences in reaction time (RT) distribution components play in the prediction of inhibitory control and working memory (WM) capacity in children with and without ADHD. Children with (n = 91, [Formula: see text] age = 10.2 years, 67 % male) and without ADHD (n = 62, [Formula: see text] age = 10.6 years, 46 % male) completed four tasks of WM and a stop signal reaction time (SSRT) task. Children with ADHD had smaller WM capacities and less efficient inhibitory control. Diffusion model analyses revealed that children with ADHD had slower drift rates (v) and faster non-decision times (Ter), but there were no group differences in boundary separations (a). Similarly, using an ex-Gaussian approach, children with ADHD had larger τ values than non-ADHD controls, but did not differ in μ or σ distribution components. Drift rate mediated the association between ADHD status and performance on both inhibitory control and WM capacity. τ also mediated the ADHD-executive function impairment associations; however, models were a poorer fit to the data. Impaired performance on RT and executive functioning tasks has long been associated with childhood ADHD. Both are believed to be important cognitive mechanisms to the disorder. We demonstrate here that drift rate, or the speed at which information accumulates towards a decision, is able to explain both.
Authors:
Sarah L Karalunas; Cynthia L Huang-Pollock
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of abnormal child psychology     Volume:  41     ISSN:  1573-2835     ISO Abbreviation:  J Abnorm Child Psychol     Publication Date:  2013 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-06-12     Completed Date:  2013-10-17     Revised Date:  2014-07-02    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0364547     Medline TA:  J Abnorm Child Psychol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  837-50     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / diagnosis*,  psychology*
Child
Decision Making
Executive Function*
Female
Humans
Individuality*
Inhibition (Psychology)*
Male
Memory, Short-Term*
Models, Psychological*
Neuropsychological Tests / statistics & numerical data
Normal Distribution
Psychometrics
Reaction Time*
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
F32 MH098632/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; F32MH098632/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; R01 MH084947/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; R01MH084947/MH/NIMH NIH HHS
Comments/Corrections

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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