Document Detail

Instructions about nicotine dose influence acute responses to nasal spray.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15801579     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Effects of substance use are typically assumed to be related to pharmacological actions. However, beliefs about the drug content of a substance may strongly influence subjective and reinforcing responses to that substance (i.e., "placebo" effects). We examined the subjective and reinforcing effects of a nasal spray containing no nicotine as a function of instructions about the nicotine content of the spray (Told Nicotine vs. Told No Nicotine). Smokers (n=49) not interested in quitting smoking abstained overnight prior to a single session in which they were randomly assigned to one of three groups, involving one of the two instructional sets or a group that got no spray. Following dose instructions, subjects in the two spray groups were administered one set of four sprays from the spray bottle and then rated them intermittently on items related to "reward" (e.g., "liking", amount they would pay for more) and other effects. At the same time points, they also rated mood, craving, and withdrawal, and had heart rate and blood pressure measured. Reinforcement was then determined by the number of ad libitum sprays they self-administered during a 20-min period. The no-spray group simply rested quietly during the session, while measures were assessed at the same time points as subjects in the other two groups. Those in the Told Nicotine group reported greater spray ratings of "how much nicotine," "liking," "satisfying," "buzz/head rush," and "similar to smoking" compared with the Told No Nicotine group. Craving decreased more for those Told Nicotine versus those Told No Nicotine, but also decreased more for those Told No Nicotine compared with the no spray group. There were no significant differences in amount they would pay for more sprays, withdrawal, mood, cardiovascular responses, or in spray self-administration. These results show that instructions about the nicotine content of a novel delivery device (nasal spray) can influence self-reported spray ratings and reduce craving but are limited with respect to effects on other measures of drug response.
Kenneth A Perkins; Lynette Jacobs; Lindsey Clark; Cynthia A Conklin; Michael Sayette; Annette Wilson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco     Volume:  6     ISSN:  1462-2203     ISO Abbreviation:  Nicotine Tob. Res.     Publication Date:  2004 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-04-01     Completed Date:  2005-05-10     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9815751     Medline TA:  Nicotine Tob Res     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1051-60     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Administration, Intranasal
Blood Pressure
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Heart Rate / drug effects
Impulsive Behavior
Nicotine / administration & dosage,  pharmacology*
Reinforcement (Psychology)
Smoking / prevention & control*
Smoking Cessation / methods*
Teaching / methods*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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