Document Detail


Instance memorization and category influence: Challenging the evidence for multiple systems in category learning.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23140443     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
A class of dual-system theories of categorization assumes a categorization system based on actively formed prototypes in addition to a separate instance memory system. It has been suggested that, because they have used poorly differentiated category structures (such as the influential "5-4" structure), studies supporting the alternative exemplar theory reveal little about the properties of the categorization system. Dual-system theories assume that the instance memory system only influences categorization behaviour via similarity to single isolated instances, without generalization across instances. However, we present the results of two experiments employing the 5-4 structure to argue against this. Experiment 1 contrasted learning in the standard 5-4 structure with learning in an even more poorly differentiated 5-4 structure. In Experiment 2, participants memorized the 5-4 structure based on a five minute simultaneous presentation of all nine category instances. Both experiments revealed category influences as reflected by differences in instance learnability and generalization, at variance with the dual-system prediction. These results have implications for the exemplars versus prototypes debate and the nature of human categorization mechanisms.
Authors:
Mark K Johansen; Nathalie Fouquet; Justin Savage; David R Shanks
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-11-12
Journal Detail:
Title:  Quarterly journal of experimental psychology (2006)     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1747-0226     ISO Abbreviation:  Q J Exp Psychol (Hove)     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-12     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101259775     Medline TA:  Q J Exp Psychol (Hove)     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
a School of Psychology , Cardiff University , Cardiff , UK.
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