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Insights into the origin of rare haplogroup C3* Y chromosomes in South America from high-density autosomal SNP genotyping.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25435155     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
The colonization of Americas is thought to have occurred 15-20 thousand years ago (Kya), with little or no subsequent migration into South America until the European expansions beginning 0.5Kya. Recently, however, haplogroup C3* Y chromosomes were discovered in two nearby Native American populations from Ecuador. Since this haplogroup is otherwise nearly absent from the Americas but is common in East Asia, and an archaeological link between Ecuador and Japan is known from 6Kya, an additional migration 6Kya was suggested. Here, we have generated high-density autosomal SNP genotypes from the Ecuadorian populations and compared them with genotypes from East Asia and elsewhere to evaluate three hypotheses: a recent migration from Japan, a single pulse of migration from Japan 6Kya, and no migration after the First Americans. First, using forward-time simulations and an appropriate demographic model, we investigated our power to detect both ancient and recent gene flow at different levels. Second, we analyzed 207,321 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 16 Ecuadorian individuals, comparing them with populations from the HGDP panel using descriptive and formal tests for admixture. Our simulations revealed good power to detect recent admixture, and that ≥5% admixture 6Kya ago could be detected. However, in the experimental data we saw no evidence of gene flow from Japan to Ecuador. In summary, we can exclude recent migration and probably admixture 6Kya as the source of the C3* Y chromosomes in Ecuador, and thus suggest that they represent a rare founding lineage lost by drift elsewhere.
Massimo Mezzavilla; Maria Geppert; Chris Tyler-Smith; Lutz Roewer; Yali Xue
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2014-11-18
Journal Detail:
Title:  Forensic science international. Genetics     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1878-0326     ISO Abbreviation:  Forensic Sci Int Genet     Publication Date:  2014 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-12-1     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  2014-12-2    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101317016     Medline TA:  Forensic Sci Int Genet     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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