Document Detail

Insects, birds and lizards as pollinators of the largest-flowered Scrophularia of Europe and Macaronesia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22021816     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It has traditionally been considered that the flowers of Scrophularia are mainly pollinated by wasps. We studied the pollination system of four species which stand out for their large and showy flowers: S. sambucifolia and S. grandiflora (endemics of the western Mediterranean region), S. trifoliata (an endemic of the Tyrrhenian islands) and S. calliantha (an endemic of the Canary Islands). Our principal aim was to test whether these species were pollinated by birds or showed a mixed pollination system between insects and birds.
METHODS: Censuses and captures of insects and birds were performed to obtain pollen load transported and deposited on the stigmas. Also, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the flowers and inflorescences was carried out.
KEY RESULTS: Flowers were visited by Hymenoptera and by passerine birds. The Canarian species was the most visited by birds, especially by Phylloscopus canariensis, and its flowers were also accessed by juveniles of the lizard Gallotia stehlini. The most important birds in the other three species were Sylvia melanocephala and S. atricapilla. The most important insect-functional groups in the mixed pollination system were: honey-bees and wasps in S. sambucifolia; bumble-bees and wasps in S. grandiflora; wasps in S. trifoliata; and a small bee in S. calliantha.
CONCLUSIONS: The species studied show a mixed pollination system between insects and passerine birds. In S. calliantha there is, in addition, a third agent (juveniles of Gallotia stehlini). The participation of birds in this mixed pollination system presents varying degrees of importance because, while in S. calliantha they are the main pollinators, in the other species they interact to complement the insects which are the main pollinators. A review of different florae showed that the large showy floral morphotypes of Scrophularia are concentrated in the western and central Mediterranean region, Macaronesia and USA (New Mexico).
Ana Ortega-Olivencia; Tomás Rodríguez-Riaño; José L Pérez-Bote; Josefa López; Carlos Mayo; Francisco J Valtueña; Marisa Navarro-Pérez
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2011-10-20
Journal Detail:
Title:  Annals of botany     Volume:  109     ISSN:  1095-8290     ISO Abbreviation:  Ann. Bot.     Publication Date:  2012 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-12-19     Completed Date:  2012-05-17     Revised Date:  2013-06-27    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0372347     Medline TA:  Ann Bot     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  153-67     Citation Subset:  IM    
Área de Botánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s.n., 06006-Badajoz, Spain.
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MeSH Terms
Flowers / anatomy & histology*,  growth & development*
Pollination / physiology
Scrophularia / anatomy & histology*,  growth & development*

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