Document Detail

Innate immune recognition of nucleic acids.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18810334     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The innate immune system employs a number of pattern recognition receptor families in response to DNAs and RNAs, either from invading microbes or within the hosts. These include the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) like receptors (RLRs), and the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat/NOD-like receptor (NLRs), among other potential sensors in the cytoplasm. These receptors are composed of modular domain architecture, with ligand binding/sensing domains and signaling domains regulated either through dimerization/oligomerization, or conformational changes directed by enzymatic activities. Signaling pathways from different families of receptors converge on their respective common adapter proteins and lead to activation of transcription factors or caspases. Many of these receptors induce orchestrated responses to similar ligands from different cell types, resulting in redundant and complementary immunity to infections. This highly efficient defense system is a double-edged sword: inappropriate reaction to host ligands leads to compromised innate tolerance and autoimmune diseases. Structural studies of innate immune receptors and their signaling pathways are essential in our understanding of pattern recognition mechanisms and design of more efficient vaccine adjuvants.
Tsan Xiao
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Immunologic research     Volume:  43     ISSN:  0257-277X     ISO Abbreviation:  Immunol. Res.     Publication Date:  2009  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-03-26     Completed Date:  2009-06-09     Revised Date:  2012-09-24    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8611087     Medline TA:  Immunol Res     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  98-108     Citation Subset:  IM    
Structural Immunobiology Unit, Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Memorial Drive, Building 4, Room 138, Bethesda, MD 20892-0430, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Carrier Proteins / immunology,  metabolism
DEAD-box RNA Helicases / immunology*,  metabolism
DNA / immunology*
DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology,  metabolism
Endosomes / immunology,  metabolism
Immunity, Innate*
Nod Signaling Adaptor Proteins / immunology*,  metabolism
RNA / immunology*
Signal Transduction / immunology
Toll-Like Receptors / immunology*,  metabolism
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Carrier Proteins; 0/DNA-Binding Proteins; 0/NLRP3 protein, human; 0/Nod Signaling Adaptor Proteins; 0/Toll-Like Receptors; 0/ZBP1 protein, human; 63231-63-0/RNA; 9007-49-2/DNA; EC 3.6.1.-/DDX58 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.-/DEAD-box RNA Helicases

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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