Document Detail


Inhaled nitric oxide. Selective pulmonary vasodilation in cardiac surgical patients.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8512095     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (NO), an endothelium-derived relaxing factor, is a selective pulmonary vasodilator. The authors investigated whether the pulmonary vasodilation resulting from 20 ppm inhaled NO is related to the degree of pulmonary hypertension or affected by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or the presence of intravenous nitrates. METHODS: In patients undergoing cardiac surgery (n = 20) or in whom the circulation was supported with a ventricular assist device (VAD; n = 5), the lungs were ventilated with 80% O2 and 20% N2 followed by the same gas concentrations containing 20 ppm NO for 6 min. RESULTS: Inhaled NO decreased (P < 0.05) the pulmonary artery pressure from 36 +/- 3 to 29 +/- 2 mmHg and 32 +/- 2 to 27 +/- 1 mmHg, before and after CPB, respectively, and from 68 +/- 12 to 55 +/- 9 mmHg in patients with a VAD. Similarly, the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) decreased (P < 0.05) from 387 +/- 44 to 253 +/- 26 dyne.cm.s-5 and 260 +/- 27 to 182 +/- 18 dyne.cm.s-5, before and after CPB, respectively, and from 1,085 +/- 229 to 752 +/- 130 dyne.cm.s-5 in patients with a VAD. Central venous pressure, cardiac output, systemic hemodynamics, and blood gases did not change after inhalation of NO before or after CPB, whereas arterial oxygen tension, mixed venous hemoglobin saturation, and mean arterial pressure increased (P < 0.05) in patients supported with a VAD. All hemodynamic and laboratory data returned to control 6 min after discontinuation of NO. The decrease in PVR was proportional to baseline PVR (delta PVR = -0.45 PVRb + 39.9) before CPB. The pre- and post-CPB slopes were identical despite possible damage to the endothelium resulting from CPB and the post-CPB presence of intravenous nitroglycerin (17 of 20 patients). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that 20 ppm inhaled NO is a selective pulmonary vasodilator in cardiac surgical patients before and after CPB and in patients in whom the circulation is supported with a VAD. Furthermore, NO-induced pulmonary vasodilation is proportional to PVRb and does not appear to be altered by CPB, the presence of a VAD, or infusion of nitrates.
Authors:
G F Rich; G D Murphy; C M Roos; R A Johns
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Anesthesiology     Volume:  78     ISSN:  0003-3022     ISO Abbreviation:  Anesthesiology     Publication Date:  1993 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1993-07-12     Completed Date:  1993-07-12     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1300217     Medline TA:  Anesthesiology     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1028-35     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville 22908.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Administration, Inhalation
Cardiac Surgical Procedures*
Heart-Assist Devices
Humans
Lung / blood supply*
Middle Aged
Nitric Oxide / administration & dosage,  pharmacology*
Vasodilation / drug effects*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
10102-43-9/Nitric Oxide

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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