Document Detail


Inhaled formaldehyde: exposure estimation, hazard characterization, and exposure-response analysis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12587255     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Formaldehyde has been assessed as a Priority Substance under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Probabilistic estimates of exposure of the general population in Canada to formaldehyde in ambient and indoor air are presented. Critical health effects include sensory irritation and the potential to induce tumors in the upper respiratory tract (the nasal region in rodents and potentially the lungs of humans). The majority of the general population is exposed to airborne concentrations of formaldehyde less than those typically associated with sensory irritation (i.e., 0.1 mg/m3). Based primarily upon data derived from laboratory studies, the inhalation of formaldehyde under conditions that induce cytotoxicity and sustained regenerative proliferation within the respiratory tract is considered to present a carcinogenic hazard to humans. At airborne levels for which the prevalence of sensory irritation is minimal (i.e., 0.1 mg/m3), risks of respiratory-tract cancers for the general population estimated on the basis of a biologically motivated case-specific model are exceedingly low. This biologically motivated case-specific model incorporates two-stage clonal expansion and is supported by dosimetry calculations from computational fluid dynamics analyses of formaldehyde flux in various regions of the nose and single-path modeling for the lower respiratory tract. The degree of confidence in the underlying database and uncertainties in estimates of exposure and in characterization of hazard and dose response are delineated.
Authors:
R G Liteplo; M E Meek
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part B, Critical reviews     Volume:  6     ISSN:  1093-7404     ISO Abbreviation:  J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev     Publication Date:    2003 Jan-Feb
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-02-17     Completed Date:  2003-03-13     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9802627     Medline TA:  J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  85-114     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Existing Substances Division, Safe Environments Program, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Air Pollutants / toxicity*
Air Pollution, Indoor / adverse effects
Canada / epidemiology
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Formaldehyde / toxicity*
Hazardous Substances / toxicity
Humans
Mutagens / toxicity
Neoplasms / chemically induced,  epidemiology
Risk Assessment
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants; 0/Hazardous Substances; 0/Mutagens; 50-00-0/Formaldehyde

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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