Document Detail

Influence of vegetable protein sources on trace element and mineral bioavailability.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12949395     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Vegetable protein sources are often mixed with cereals for complementary feeding. Both contain high levels of phytic acid, which can inhibit trace element and mineral absorption. In adults, phytic acid has been reported to inhibit the absorption of iron, zinc, calcium and manganese but not copper. There are far fewer studies in infants. Phytic acid is a strong inhibitor of iron absorption in both infants and adults, but its influence on zinc absorption in infants seems to be modest and perhaps most important in children recovering from infection. The influence of phytic acid on calcium and magnesium absorption would seem of minor importance. Because iron and zinc deficiencies are widespread in infants and young children in developing countries, the bioavailability of iron and zinc from complementary food is a major concern. Iron absorption may be as low as 2-3% from porridge based on whole-grain cereals and legumes (phytic acid approximately 1 g/100 g) even in iron-deficient subjects. Decreasing phytic acid by 90% ( approximately 100 mg/100 g dried product) would be expected to increase absorption about twofold and complete degradation perhaps fivefold or more. More modest reductions in phytic acid content may not usefully improve iron absorption. Complete enzymatic degradation of phytic acid is recommended. If this is not possible, it is recommended that the molar ratio of phytic acid to iron in an iron-fortified food be <1, preferably <0.5. At these low levels of phytic acid (20-30 mg/100 g dried product), zinc absorption should be satisfactory.
Richard F Hurrell
Related Documents :
6201615 - Chromoxane cyanine r. i. physical and chemical properties of the dye and of some of its...
19052685 - The dechlorination of pentachlorophenol by zerovalent iron in presence of carboxylic ac...
968465 - Gases formed from furan binding agents.
22059895 - Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues and m. longiss...
21210105 - Molecular analysis of ∆6 desaturase and ∆6 elongase from conidiobolus obscurus in t...
22877155 - Asymmetric michael addition of ketones to alkylidene malonates and allylidene malonates...
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of nutrition     Volume:  133     ISSN:  0022-3166     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2003 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-09-01     Completed Date:  2003-10-28     Revised Date:  2005-11-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0404243     Medline TA:  J Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2973S-7S     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute of Food Science ETHZ, Laboratory of Human Nutrition, CH-8803 Rüschlikon, Switzerland.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Absorption / drug effects
Biological Availability
Dietary Proteins / pharmacology*
Iron / pharmacokinetics
Minerals / pharmacokinetics*
Phytic Acid / metabolism,  pharmacology
Trace Elements / pharmacokinetics*
Vegetable Proteins / pharmacology*
Zinc / pharmacokinetics
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Dietary Proteins; 0/Minerals; 0/Trace Elements; 0/Vegetable Proteins; 7439-89-6/Iron; 7440-66-6/Zinc; 83-86-3/Phytic Acid

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Lipid requirements of infants: implications for nutrient composition of fortified complementary food...
Next Document:  Iron and ascorbic Acid: proposed fortification levels and recommended iron compounds.