Document Detail

Influence of synthetic and natural food dyes on activities of CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16009655     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Synthetic or natural food dyes are typical xenobiotics, as are drugs and pollutants. After ingestion, part of these dyes may be absorbed and metabolized by phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes and excreted by transporters of phase III enzymes. However, there is little information regarding the metabolism of these dyes. It was investigated whether these dyes are substrates for CYP2A6 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). The in vitro inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes by these dyes was also examined. The synthetic food dyes studied were amaranth (food red no. 2), erythrosine B (food red no. 3), allura red (food red no. 40), new coccine (food red no. 102), acid red (food red no. 106), tartrazine (food Yellow no. 4), sunset yellow FCF (food yellow no. 5), brilliant blue FCF (food blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (food blue no. 2). The natural additive dyes studied were extracts from purple sweet potato, purple corn, cochineal, monascus, grape skin, elderberry, red beet, gardenia, and curthamus. Data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. Only indigo carmine inhibited CYP2A6 in a noncompetitive manner, while erythrosine B inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). In the natural additive dyes just listed, only monascus inhibited UGT1A6 and UGT2B7.
Nayumi Kuno; Takaharu Mizutani
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; In Vitro; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A     Volume:  68     ISSN:  1528-7394     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A     Publication Date:  2005 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-07-12     Completed Date:  2005-08-25     Revised Date:  2014-01-09    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100960995     Medline TA:  J Toxicol Environ Health A     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1431-44     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Amaranth Dye / pharmacology
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases / antagonists & inhibitors*
Azo Compounds / pharmacology
Benzenesulfonates / pharmacology
Coloring Agents / pharmacology*
Erythrosine / pharmacology
Food Coloring Agents / pharmacology*
Glucuronosyltransferase / antagonists & inhibitors*
Indigo Carmine / pharmacology
Microsomes, Liver / drug effects,  enzymology
Mixed Function Oxygenases / antagonists & inhibitors*
Structure-Activity Relationship
Tartrazine / pharmacology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Azo Compounds; 0/Benzenesulfonates; 0/Coloring Agents; 0/Food Coloring Agents; 25305-78-6/brilliant blue; 25956-17-6/Allura Red AC Dye; 915-67-3/Amaranth Dye; D3741U8K7L/Indigo Carmine; EC 1.-/Mixed Function Oxygenases; EC 1.14.13.-/coumarin 7-hydroxylase; EC Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases; EC 2.4.1.-/UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT1A6; EC 2.4.1.-/UGT2B7 protein, human; EC; H77VEI93A8/FD & C Yellow No. 6; I753WB2F1M/Tartrazine; PN2ZH5LOQY/Erythrosine; Z525CBK9PG/ponceau 4R

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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