Document Detail


Influence of endurance exercise and diet on human placental development and fetal growth.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16165206     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The delivery of oxygen and substrate to the maternal-fetal interphase is the major maternal environmental stimulus which either up- or down-regulates feto-placental growth. During pregnancy, sustained exercise sessions cause an intermittent reduction in oxygen and substrate delivery to the interphase that may exceed 50% during the exercise but, it is probable that regular bouts of sustained exercise or exercise training may improve oxygen and substrate delivery at rest. The type of maternal carbohydrate intake (low- versus high-glycemic sources) and food intake frequency also influence substrate availability through their effects on maternal blood glucose levels and insulin sensitivity. As a result, different exercise regimens and/or different types of carbohydrate intake modify feto-placental growth. The magnitude and direction of the effect is determined by their average 24-h effect on oxygen and substrate availability at different time-points in pregnancy. In general, exercise in early and mid pregnancy stimulates placental growth while the relative amount of exercise in late pregnancy determines its effect on late fetal growth. Low-glycemic food sources in the diet decrease growth rate and size at birth while high-glycemic food sources increase it. Thus, it may be possible to improve pregnancy outcomes in both healthy, low-risk women and a variety of high-risk populaces by simply modifying maternal physical activity and dietary carbohydrate intake during pregnancy.
Authors:
J F Clapp
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review     Date:  2005-09-13
Journal Detail:
Title:  Placenta     Volume:  27     ISSN:  0143-4004     ISO Abbreviation:  Placenta     Publication Date:    2006 Jun-Jul
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-05-01     Completed Date:  2006-06-22     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8006349     Medline TA:  Placenta     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  527-34     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Reproductive Biology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MetroHealth Medical Center Campus of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44109, USA. jfclapp@metrohealth.org
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adult
Dietary Carbohydrates*
Exercise / physiology*
Female
Fetal Development / physiology*
Glycemic Index / physiology
Humans
Physical Endurance / physiology*
Placenta / embryology*,  physiology*
Pregnancy
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
HD21268/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; RR00080/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; RR00109/RR/NCRR NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Dietary Carbohydrates

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