Document Detail

Infant feeding in the second 6 months of life related to iron status: an observational study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17537759     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between iron status in infancy and type of milk and weaning solids consumed.
DESIGN: An observational cohort study.
SETTING: 928 term infants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in 1993-94.
METHODS: Haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations at 8 and 12 months were assessed in relation to type and quantity of milk intake at 8 months.
RESULTS: By WHO criteria, 22.7% of the infants were anaemic at 8 months and 18.1% at 12 months. More breast--than formula-fed infants were anaemic at 8 and 12 months. Cows' milk as the main drink was associated with increased anaemia at 12 months and low ferritin at 8 and 12 months. No association was found between any nutrients and haemoglobin concentrations. Protein and non-haem iron intakes were positively associated with ferritin concentrations and calcium intake negatively. This effect was more marked in infants being fed cows' milk. More than 25% of infants in the breast milk and cows' milk groups and 41% of infants having >6 breast feeds per day had iron intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake. Feeding cows' milk or formula above 600 ml or >6 breast feeds per day was associated with lower intakes of solids.
CONCLUSIONS: Both breast and cows' milk feeding were associated with higher levels of anaemia. Satisfactory iron intake from solids in later infancy is more likely if formula intake is <600 ml per day and breast feeds are limited to <6 feeds per day. Cows' milk should be strongly discouraged as a main drink before 12 months.
David Hopkins; Pauline Emmett; Colin Steer; Imogen Rogers; Sian Noble; Alan Emond
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2007-05-30
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of disease in childhood     Volume:  92     ISSN:  1468-2044     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch. Dis. Child.     Publication Date:  2007 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-09-26     Completed Date:  2007-10-15     Revised Date:  2014-02-19    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0372434     Medline TA:  Arch Dis Child     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  850-4     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
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MeSH Terms
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / diagnosis*,  prevention & control
Breast Feeding / adverse effects*
Cohort Studies
Infant Formula / administration & dosage
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Milk / adverse effects*
Multivariate Analysis
Nutritional Requirements
Grant Support
G9815508//Medical Research Council; //Wellcome Trust
Reg. No./Substance:

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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