Document Detail

Induction of anesthesia and tracheal intubation with sevoflurane in adults.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8853083     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: The speed, quality, and cost of mask induction of anesthesia and laryngeal mask airway insertion or tracheal intubation were studied in young non-premedicated volunteers given high inspired concentrations of sevoflurane (6 to 7%). METHODS: Twenty healthy persons who were 19 to 32 years old participated three times, received 6 l/min fresh gas flow, and were randomized to receive 6 to 7% sevoflurane in 66% nitrous oxide/28% oxygen by face mask until tracheal intubation (treatment 1) or until laryngeal mask airway insertion (treatment 3), or 6 to 7% sevoflurane without nitrous oxide to tracheal intubation (treatment 2). Participants exhaled to residual volume and took three vital capacity breaths of the gas mixture; thereafter ventilation was manually assisted. The time of exposure to the inhaled gas was varied for consecutive participants. It was either increased or decreased by 30-sec increments based on the failure or success of the preceding volunteer's response to laryngoscopy and intubation after a preselected exposure time. Failure was defined as poor jaw relaxation, coughing or bucking, or inadequate vocal cord relaxation. RESULTS: Loss of the lid-lash reflex in unpremedicated young volunteers was achieved in 1 min and did not differ among groups. Average time (and 95% confidence interval) for acceptable conditions for LMA insertion was achieved in 1.7 (0.7 to 2.7) min, and all participants had an immediate return of spontaneous ventilation. The time for acceptable tracheal intubating conditions after manual hyperventilation by mask was 4.7 (3.7 to 5.7) min and 6.4 (5.1 to 7.7) min in treatments 1 and 2, respectively. There were no cases of increased secretions or laryngospasm. The incidence of breath holding and expiratory stridor ("crowing") was 7.5% and 25%, respectively, during treatment 1 and 15% and 40%, respectively, during treatment 2. CONCLUSIONS: The induction of anesthesia to loss of lid reflex in young non-premedicated adults approaches the speed of intravenous induction techniques. No untoward airway responses were noted during mask induction of anesthesia with a three-breath technique. In response to intubation, no adverse airway responses, including jaw tightness, laryngospasm, and excessive coughing or bucking, occurred in participants whose duration of mask administration of sevoflurane met the appropriate times (as determined in this study).
M Muzi; B J Robinson; T J Ebert; T J O'Brien
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Anesthesiology     Volume:  85     ISSN:  0003-3022     ISO Abbreviation:  Anesthesiology     Publication Date:  1996 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1996-11-07     Completed Date:  1996-11-07     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1300217     Medline TA:  Anesthesiology     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  536-43     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Anesthetics, Inhalation / pharmacology*
Ethers / pharmacology*
Hemodynamics / drug effects
Intubation, Intratracheal*
Laryngeal Masks
Methyl Ethers*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Anesthetics, Inhalation; 0/Ethers; 0/Methyl Ethers; 28523-86-6/sevoflurane

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