Document Detail

Induction of lead-binding phytochelatins in vetiver grass [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)].
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19329675     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Elevated lead (Pb) concentrations in residential houseyards around house walls painted with Pb-based pigments pose serious human health risks, especially to children. Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) has shown promise for use in in situ Pb phytoremediation efforts. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the observed high Pb tolerance by vetiver. We hypothesized that vetiver exposure to Pb induced the synthesis of phytochelatins (PC(n)) and the formation of Pb-PC(n) complexes, alleviating the phytotoxic effects of free Pb ions. Our main objective was to identify PC(n) and Pb-PC(n) complexes in root and shoot compartments of vetiver grass using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-ES-MS). After 7 d of exposure to Pb, vetiver accumulated up to 3000 mg Pb kg(-1) in shoot tissues, but much higher Pb concentrations were measured in root ( approximately 20,000 mg kg(-1)), without phytotoxic symptoms. Scanning electron micrographs showed Pb deposition in the vascular tissues of root and shoot, suggesting Pb translocation to shoot. Collision-induced dissociation analyses in MS/ MS mode during HPLC-ES-MS analysis allowed for the confirmation of four unique PC(n) (n = 1-4) based on their respective amino acid sequence. The high tolerance of vetiver grass to Pb was attributed to the formation of PC(n) and Pb-PC(n) complexes within the plant tissues, using ES-MS and Pb mass isotopic patterns. These data illustrate the mechanism of high Pb tolerance by vetiver grass, suggesting its potential usefulness for the remediation of Pb-contaminated residential sites.
Syam S Andra; Rupali Datta; Dibyendu Sarkar; Konstantinos C Makris; Conor P Mullens; Shivendra V Sahi; Stephan B H Bach
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.     Date:  2009-03-25
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of environmental quality     Volume:  38     ISSN:  0047-2425     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Environ. Qual.     Publication Date:    2009 May-Jun
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-03-30     Completed Date:  2009-06-18     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0330666     Medline TA:  J Environ Qual     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  868-77     Citation Subset:  IM    
Environmental Geochemistry Lab., Univ. of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Lead / metabolism*
Phytochelatins / metabolism*
Plant Roots / metabolism
Plant Shoots / metabolism
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Vetiveria / metabolism*
Reg. No./Substance:
7439-92-1/Lead; 98726-08-0/Phytochelatins

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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