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Induction of Autophagy and Autophagic Cell Death in Damaged Neural Tissue after Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Mice.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21304420     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Study Design. Expression of LC3, a characteristic marker of autophagy, was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot using a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in mice. Electron microscopic analysis was also performed to examine the anatomic formation of autophagy and autophagic cell death in the injured spinal cord.Objective. To examine both biochemically and anatomically the activity of autophagy in the damaged neural tissue after SCI.Summary of Background Data. Autophagy is the bulk degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles, and it is involved in a number of diseases. Autophagy can lead to non-apoptotic programmed cell death, which is called autophagic cell death. Recent researches have revealed the increased expression of LC3 and the anatomic formation of autophagy and autophagic cell death in damaged tissues of various disease models. However, previous studies have focused on apoptotic process but not autophagic activity as mechanism of neural tissue damage after SCI. To date, there has been no study to examine the expression of LC3 and the anatomic formation of autophagy after SCI.Methods. The spinal cord was hemi-transected at T10 in adult female C57BL/6J mice. The LC3 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The anatomic formation of autophagic activity was investigated using electron microscopy.Results. Immunohistochemistry showed that the number of the LC3 positive cells significantly increased at the lesion site after hemisection. The increase of LC3 positive cells were observed from 4 hours, peaked at 3 days, and it lasted for at least 21 days after hemisection. The LC3 positive cells were observed in neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the level of LC3-II protein expression significantly increased in the injured spinal cord. Electron microscopy showed the formation of autophagic vacuoles to increase in the damaged cells. Furthermore, the nuclei in the TUNEL positive cells expressed LC3 were round, which is consistent with autophagic cell death, and they were neither shrunken nor fragmented as is observed in apoptotic nuclei.Conclusion. This study suggested both biochemically and anatomically that autophagy was clearly activated and autophagic cell death was induced in the damaged neural tissue after SCI.
Haruo Kanno; Hhiroshi Ozawa; Akira Sekiguchi; Seiji Yamaya; Eiji Itoi
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-2-7
Journal Detail:
Title:  Spine     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1528-1159     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-2-9     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7610646     Medline TA:  Spine (Phila Pa 1976)     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
*Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan † Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami, Florida, USA.
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