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Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters.
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MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10064553     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with kerosene heaters suggest that acid particle concentrations may be substantially higher than those measured because of acid neutralization by ammonia. During the summer and winter periods indoor concentrations of ammonia are an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors and appear to result in lower indoor acid particle concentrations. Nitrous acid levels are higher indoors than outdoors during both winter and summer and are substantially higher in homes with unvented combustion sources.
Authors:
B P Leaderer; L Naeher; T Jankun; K Balenger; T R Holford; C Toth; J Sullivan; J M Wolfson; P Koutrakis
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental health perspectives     Volume:  107     ISSN:  0091-6765     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Health Perspect.     Publication Date:  1999 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-07-01     Completed Date:  1999-07-01     Revised Date:  2010-09-13    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0330411     Medline TA:  Environ Health Perspect     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  223-31     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8034 USA.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Air Pollutants / analysis*
Air Pollution / statistics & numerical data*
Air Pollution, Indoor / statistics & numerical data
Connecticut
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental Exposure / analysis*
Environmental Monitoring
Heating / adverse effects*
Humans
Kerosene / adverse effects*
Linear Models
Longitudinal Studies
Particle Size
Residence Characteristics
Seasons
Virginia
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
ESO5410/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants; 0/Kerosene
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From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Full Text
Journal Information
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Environ Health Perspect
ISSN: 0091-6765
Article Information
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Print publication date: Month: 3 Year: 1999
Volume: 107 Issue: 3
First Page: 223 Last Page: 231
ID: 1566377
PubMed Id: 10064553

Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters.
B P Leaderer
L Naeher
T Jankun
K Balenger
T R Holford
C Toth
J Sullivan
J M Wolfson
P Koutrakis
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8034 USA.



Article Categories:
  • Research Article


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