Document Detail


Individual differences in the neural basis of causal inferencing.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21051084     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
This study used fMRI to examine individual differences in the neural basis of causal inferencing. Participants with varying language skill levels, as indexed by scores on the vocabulary portion of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, read four types of two-sentence passages in which causal relatedness (moderate and distant) and presence or absence of explicit clause connectives were orthogonally varied to manipulate coherence and cohesion during inference generation. Skilled readers showed better neural efficiency (less activation) during all context sentences and during all inference conditions. Increased activation in less-skilled readers was most extensively distributed in the right hemisphere (RH) homologues of left hemisphere (LH) language areas, especially in the most difficult passage types. Skilled readers also showed greater sensitivity to coherence (greater activation and synchronization in moderately related than distantly related passages) whereas less-skilled readers showed sensitivity to cohesion (greater activation and synchronization when clause connectives were present than when they were not). These finding support the hypothesis that skilled reading comprehension requires recruitment of the RH on an "as needed" basis. We describe the dynamic spillover hypothesis, a new theoretical framework that outlines the conditions under which RH language contributions are most likely evoked.
Authors:
Chantel S Prat; Robert A Mason; Marcel Adam Just
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Date:  2010-11-03
Journal Detail:
Title:  Brain and language     Volume:  116     ISSN:  1090-2155     ISO Abbreviation:  Brain Lang     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-11-24     Completed Date:  2011-03-07     Revised Date:  2012-04-09    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7506220     Medline TA:  Brain Lang     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1-13     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology and Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences, University of Washington, P.O. Box 357988, Seattle, WA 98195-7988, USA. csprat@uw.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Brain / physiology*
Brain Mapping
Comprehension / physiology*
Female
Functional Laterality / physiology*
Humans
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Individuality*
Language*
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Reading
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
DC009634/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS; MH029617/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; R01 MH029617-28/MH/NIMH NIH HHS

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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